unemployment in india.
Unemployment is a situation characterized by the existence of those able bodied persons who are willing two work but have to do without a job tha may give them some regular income. Unemployment is a universal feature of capitalist societies.
Unemployment does not mean, ‘No employment’. It means ‘Lack of employment’. Unemployment may be defined as state of affairs in a country where there are large number of able bodied persons of working age who are willing to work But cannot find work at the current rate of wage level.
CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN INDIA:
1) Rapid rate of population growth :
At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families.
2) Slow economic growth:
A sluggish economic is a state of an economy in which growth is slow, flat or declining. The term can refer to the economy as a whole or a component of the economy, such as weak housing starts, Extended periods of sluggishness can easily lead into a recession, so a sluggish economy is often considered a leading indicator of a potentially steeper downturn.
3) Lack of funds to invest :
We have no funds to invest and to increase our economic growth, which results in unemployment.
4) Use of inappropriate technology :
In our Development plans more attention has been given to capital intensive rather than labour intensive technology Which provide more employment.
5) Backwardness in agriculture:
The backward nature of our farming results in unemployment because agriculture cannot provide employment opportunities to rural population.
6) Small holding :
Majorly of the agriculture hold small holding i.e 1 or 2 acres. Therefore they cannot employ others.
7) Immobility of labour:
People are reluctant to live their native place and relatives which results in unemployment.
8) Seasonal nature of agricultural:
Agricultural labourer do not have work over the year.
9) Illiteracy :
Illiteracy is the one of the main cause of unemployment. They have to go to hard work. Majority of illiterate labourer remain unemployed hall of the year.
10) Inappropriate educational system:
The Indian universities are producing graduates. The system of education does not make the educated fit or employment in industry, Trade, etc.
11) Science and Technology :
Now a day’s science and technology has been tremendously developed. It introduced many new instrument appliances etc. which results in unemployment.
12) Modernization :
Some industries have been trying to reduce cost of production by introducing a measure of modernization.Which results in retrenchment and unemployment.
13) High rate of taxes:
The gout imposers taxes an income, Wealth, Excise , custom etc. at a very high rate. Therefore manufactures employ minimum employers and even the citizens cannot start private businesses due to heavy taxes.
14) Nehru’s mixed economy :
Nehru adopted mixed economy in India and also adopted sociology which results in speedy growth of science and technology Which results in unemployment.
15) Government Policies :
Government policies showed partiality throughout the public sector. They public enterprises have become monopoly. The private sectors are logging behind and there is failure of employment facilities.
16) Inappropriate Jobs :
Several lakh of people are working in jobs not suitable to their qualification, status , wages etc .
17) Unemployment in profession :
There are several doctors, lawyers, CA’s, engineers etc are remained unemployed due to having no own financial capacity to start their professions.
18) Work of trade unions :
Trade union of workers call for strikes, the owners declare lockout and factories are closed for number of days, which results in unemployment.
19) Inadequate planning :
The government failed to formulate efficient and adequate planning’s of removal of unemployment.
20) Failure in utilization of natural resources:
The natural resources are not property used.
21) Child labour :
Even though child labours are prohibited to work in agriculture, hotels factories etc. They are working on law wages which results unemployment to youth.
CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT:
• It involves wastage or under utilization of valuable human resources.
• Frustrated young persons are liable to be exploited for unsocial purposes and indulge in anti-social activities,
• Fall off standard of living and increase of poverty among public.
• Mass illiteracy and ill health are the result of unemployment.
• Backwardness and under development of unemployed people.
• The time and energies of a large mass of people are not gainfully used.
TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN INDIA :
A) Rural unemployment in India :
In india has roughly 70% of its population living in rural areas. But not enough employment is available for all those living in the rural areas. This leads to unemployment which can take two form.
1) Seasonal unemployment: It is depending on climate, the cropping pattern and the socio-economic factors may vary from region to region and even within the same region over different seasons. The agriculturist is not free to accept outside jobs unless they are available during the period of idleness.
2) Disguised unemployment: It refers the mass under development rural people with increase in pressure on land more people are engaged in agriculture than necessary.
In India 80% of total unemployment is rural unemployment and 20% is urban unemployment.
The causes for rural unemployment:-
a) Rapidly growing population.
b) Slow economic development
c) Seasonal nature of Agriculture
d) Joint family system
e) Law of Inheritance
f) Social Prestige
g) Unprofitable Agriculture
Measures are to remove rural unemployment.
a) To check the population Growth.
b) Fast economic growth.
c) To make production pattern more labour intensive land development and settlement.
d) Reform the land law.
e) Promotion of rural social service such as education housing and health services
f) Development of productive activities such as dairy farming, poultry, Farming, Fishing etc.
g) Expansion of animal husbandry.
h) Diversification of agricultural production.
B) Urban unemployment in India :
In India’s unemployment rate in urban areas for all ages was 9.3% in the January. March Quarter of 2019 Compared to 9.9% in the trailing 3 Months periods. Unemployment among those aged between 15-29 years was 22.5% in the quarter ending March 2019 from 23.7% in the preceding quarter.
1) Educated unemployment: The problem of the educated unemployment constitute a very serious problem. Out of total numbers of job seeker, registered with employment exchange, about 50% are educated unemployed. The number of educated job seeker, was increasing at the annual rate of more than 20%. The educated unemployed were 2.44% lakh's in 1951 and they reached to 224 lakhs in 1991.
2) Industrial unemployment: The exact size of the industrial unemployment in India is not known because the necessary data for it’s estimation are not available. During planning period, Industrial sector has expanded and employment in it has slowly increased. During lost 25 years, unemployment in the industrial sector has increased due to failure of small scale and large scale industries.
• Cases of urban unemployment:
a) Increasing output of Indian universities.
b) Literacy character of education.
c) Under developed of economy.
d) Lack of dignity of labour and hunt for the white collar jobs.
e) More and more expectations.
f) Lack of training facilities.
g) Lack of vocational and professional guidance.
h) Joint family system.
• Measures are to Remove urban Unemployment:
a) Reform of the education with vocational and technical courses.
b) Repaid economic development.
c) Improving of employment exchanges.
d) Vocational and career guidance.
e) Encouragement to the small scale industries.
f) Expansion of social services like education, housing and health services.
g) Aiding self employment etc.
• Remedies to remove unemployment :
1) Rapid economic development is necessary .
2) Labour intensive industry should be promoted.
3) Spread of new technology in agriculture is necessary to increase the production.
4) Employment exchanges to be established throughout country in urban and rural areas.
5) Adequate financial facilities are to be made available for self employment.
6) Establishment of work and training at places were work opportunities have been provided.
7) Special assistance be provided to individuals or small groups of people for establishing small scale industries and business.
8) Training facilities expanded in those line in which manpower shortage at present exits.
9) Active encouragement be given to products of cottage and small scale industries.
10) Road transport facilitates be developed.
11) Improvement of educational facilities with training courses is necessary.
12) Private sector industries should be promoted than public sector.
13) The government should plan to utilize fully the human and natural resources ect.
In present day exist I Indian economy unemployment ratio in rural as well as urban areas. Particularly technology unemployment highly increase in urban areas and seasonal unemployment highly increase rural ares.