||1.1 Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology.
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences,
behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth
Sciences and Humanities.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and
(a) Social-cultural Anthropology.
(b) Biological Anthropology.
(c) Archaeological Anthropology.
(d) Linguistic Anthropology.
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man:
(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian
(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and
concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule,
Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation,
and mosaic evolution).
1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and
Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and
Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary
and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates;
Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes
due to erect posture and its implications.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical
distribution of the following :
(a) Plio-preleistocene hominids in South and East Africa—
(b) Homo erectus : Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo
erectus (heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus,
Homo erectus pekinensis.
(c) Neanderthal man—La-chapelle-aux-saints (Classical
type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
(d) Rhodesian man.
(e) Homo saoiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
1.7 The biological basis of Life : The Cell, DNA structure and
replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation,
Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology :
Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
(b) Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures :
(v) Copper-Bronze Age
(vi) Iron Age
||2.1 The Nature of Culture : The concept and Characteristics
of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural
2.2 The Nature of Society : Concept of Society; Society and
Culture; Social Institution; Social groups; and Social
2.3 Marriage : Definition and universality; Laws of marriage
(endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo);
Type of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group
marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations
(preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage
payments (bride wealth and dowry).
2.4 Family : Definition and universality; Family, household
and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family
(from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage,
residence and succession); Impact of urbanization,
industrialization and feminist movements on family.
2.5 Kinship : Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types
of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral Ambilineal); Forms of
descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred);
Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent,
Filiation and Complimentary Filiation;Decent and Alliance.
3. Economic Organization : Meaning, scope and relevance of
economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate;
Principles governing production, distribution and exchange
(reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities,
subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening,
pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and
indigenous economic systems.
4. Political Organization and Social Control : Band, tribe,
chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority
and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple
5. Religion : Anthropological approaches to the study of
religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional);
monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and
rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant Societies
(animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism);
religion, magic and science distinguished; magico-religious
functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and
6. Anthropological theories :
(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
(b) Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism (British,
German and American)
(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural— Functionalism
(d) Structuralism (L’evi-Strauss and E. Leach)
(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner
and Cora-du Bois)
(f) Neo—evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and
(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)
(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and
(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
(j) Post-modernism in anthropology.
||7. Culture, Language and Communication : Nature, origin
and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal
communication; social contex of language use.
8. Research methods in Anthropology
(a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
(b) Distinction between technique, method and
(c) Tools of data collection : observation, interview,
schedules, questionnaire, case study, genealogy, life-history,
oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory
(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
9.1 Human Genetics : Methods and Application : Methods
for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree
analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method,
cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis),
biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A.
technology and recombinant technologies.
9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor,
multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in
9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection,
Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and
changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation,
migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift.
Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic
load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man,
(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
(b) Sex chromosomal aberration- Klinefelter (XXY), Turner
(XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic
(c) Autosomal aberrations- Down syndrome, Patau, Edward
and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening,
genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and
9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological
variation of non-metric and characters. Racial criteria, racial
traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological
basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race
crossing in man.
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker
: ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood
enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat,
pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in
different cultural and socio-ecomomic groups.
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology : Bio
cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non-genetic factors.
Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses:
hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology : Health and disease.
Infectious and non-infectious diseases, Nutritional deficiency
10. Concept of human growth and Development : Stages of
growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence,
—Factors affecting growth and development genetic,
environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio
—Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations
—Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique
and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other
bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.
11.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing
fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.
12. Applications of Anthropology : Anthropology of sports,
Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of
defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology,
Methods and principles of personal identification and
reconstruction, Applied human genetics—Paternity
diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology
in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in
1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and
Civilization— Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic
and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization).
Pre-Harappan, Harappan and post- Harappan cultures.
Contributions of the tribal cultures to Indian civilization.
1.2 Palaeo—Anthropological evidences from India with
special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin
(Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
1.3. Ethno-archaeology in India: The concept of ethno
archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting,
foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities
including arts and crafts producing communities.
2. Demographic profile of India—Ethnic and linguistic
elements in the Indian population and their distribution.
Indian population—factors influencing its structure and
3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social
system—Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
3.2 Caste system in India— Structure and characteristics
Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system,
Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system,
Jajmani system. Tribe-case continuum.
3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.
3.4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity of
4. Emergence, growth and development in India—
Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century
scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian
anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.
5.1 Indian Village—Significane of village study in India;
Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing
patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian
relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social,
political and economic status.
5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural
change in Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization,
Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions;
Panchayati Raj and social change; Media and Social change.
||6.1 Tribal situation in India—Bio-genetic variability,
linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal
populations and their distribution.
6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities—Land alienation,
poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational
facilities, unemployment, under-employment, health and
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal
displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development
of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and
industrialization on tribal populations.
7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled
Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.
Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and
7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies : Impact
of modern democratic institutions, development
programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker
7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political
developments; Unrest among tribal communities;
Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism.
Social change among the tribes during colonial and post
||8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and
other religions on tribal societies.
8.2 Tribe and nation state—a comparative study of tribal
communities in India and other countries.
9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies,
plans, programmes of tribal development and their
implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal
Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their
development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.
9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of
regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political
||Full Syllabus Test 1
||Full Syllabus Test 2