Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)
Posted on : 24 Dec 2019Views: 387
- Nearly three years after its unanimous endorsement by the Security Council, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) on the Iranian nuclear issue was at a crossroads in the wake of the decision by the United States to withdraw from that agreement.
- A year after this Iran announced partial withdrawal from the nuclear deal. Iran warned it would resume higher uranium enrichment in 60 days if the remaining signatories did not make good on promises to shield its oil and banking sectors from sanctions.
- The UK, Germany and France which all opposed the sanctions, have set up an alternative payment mechanism aimed at helping international companies trade with Iran without facing US penalties.
- In 2015, Iran agreed a long-term deal on its nuclear programme with a group of world powers known as the P5+1 - the US, UK, France, China, Russia and Germany.
- Under the accord, Iran agreed to limit its sensitive nuclear activities and allow in international inspectors in return for the lifting of crippling economic sanctions.
- Iran’s compliance with the nuclear-related provisions of the JCPOA will be verified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) according to certain requirements set forth in the agreement.
- Iran had two facilities - Natanz and Fordo - where uranium hexafluoride gas was fed into centrifuges to separate out the most fissile isotope, U-235. Under the JCPOA, it was limited to installing no more than 5,060 of the oldest and least efficient centrifuges at Natanz until 2026 - 10 years after the deal's "implementation day" in January 2016. No enrichment will be permitted at Fordo until 2031, and the underground facility will be converted into a nuclear, physics and technology centre. In addition, research and development must take place only at Natanz and be limited until 2024.
- Iran's uranium stockpile was reduced by 98% to 300kg (660lbs), a figure that must not be exceeded until 2031. It must also keep the stockpile's level of enrichment at 3.67%.
- Iran also agreed to remove and disable the original core of Arak reactor and replace it to reduce weapons grade Plutonium output.
- Iran also agreed not to engage in activities, including research and development, which could contribute to the development of a nuclear bomb.
- The JCPOA established the Joint Commission, with the negotiating parties all represented to oversee the deal and also provides for dispute resolution. If the Joint Commission cannot resolve a dispute, it will be referred to the UN Security Council.
Article Related Questions
Consider the following statements with reference to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)
1.JCPOA is a nuclear deal between Iran and the P5 countries.
2.International Atomic Energy Agency will oversee the implementation of the deal.
3.Under the deal, USA proposed alternative payment mechanism to help international companies trade with Iran without attracting sanctions.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?
The 1857 Uprising was the culmination of the recurrent big and small local rebellions that occured in the preceding hundred years of British Rule. Elucidate (Answer in 150 words) - 2019 Mains
1.1 and 2 only
2.1 and 3 only
3.2 and 3 only
4.1, 2 and 3
Right Ans : 1, 2 and 3