1.1 Atomic structure
Schrodinger wave equation, significance of
numbers and their significance, radial and angular probability, shapes of
orbitals, relative energies of atomic orbitals as a function of atomic number.
Electronic configurations of elements; Aufbau principle, Hund's multiplicity
rule, Pauli exclusion principle.
1.2 Chemical periodicity
Periodic classification of elements, salient characteristics of s,p,d and f
block elements. Periodic trends of atomic radii, ionic radii, ionisation
potential, electron affinity and electronegativity in the periodic table.
: Types of bonding, overlap of atomic orbitals, sigma and pi
bonds, hydrogen and metallic bonds. Shapes of molecules, bond order, bond
length, V.S.E.P.R. theory and bond angles. The concept of hybridization and
shapes of molecules and ions.
1.4 Oxidation states and oxidation
: Oxidation and reduction, oxidation numbers, common redox
reactions, ionic equations. Balancing of equations for oxidation and reduction
1.5 Acids and bases
Bronsted and Lewis theories of acids and bases. Hard and soft acids and bases.
HSAB principle, relative strengths of acids and bases and the effect of
substituents and solvents on their strength.
: Its unique
position in the periodic table, isotopes, ortho and para hydrogen, industrial
production, heavy water.
(ii) Chemistry of s and p block elements
configuration, general characteristics properties, inert pair effect, allotropy
and catenation. Special emphasis on solutions of alkali and alkaline earth
metals in liquid ammonia. Preparation, properties and structures of boric acid,
borates, boron nitrides, borohydride (diborane), carboranes, oxides and oxyacids
of nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur and chlorine; interhalogen compounds,
polyhalide ions, pseudohalogens, fluorocarbons and basic properties of halogens.
Chemical reactivity of noble gases, preparation, structure and bonding of noble
(iii) Chemistry of d block
: Transition metals including lanthanides, general
characteristic properties, oxidation states, magnetic behaviour, colour. First
row transition metals and general properties of their compounds (oxides, halides
and sulphides); lanthanide contraction.
1.7 Extraction of metals
: Principles of extraction of
metals as illustrated by sodium, magnesium, aluminium, iron, nickel, copper,
silver and gold.
: Nuclear reactions; mass defect and binding energy,
nuclear fission and fusion. Nuclear reactors; radioisotopes and their
1.9 Coordination compounds
: Nomenclature, isomerism and
theories of coordination compounds and their role in nature and medicine.
1.10 Pollution and its control
: Air pollution, types of air
pollutants; control of air and water pollution; radioactive pollution.
2.1 Bonding and shapes of organic
: Electronegativity, electron displacements-inductive,
mesomeric and hyperconjugative effects; bond polarity and bond polarizability,
dipole moments of organic molecules; hydrogen bond; effects of solvent and
structure on dissociation constants of acids and bases; bond formation, fission
of covalent bonds : homolysis and heterolysis; reaction
intermediates-carbocations, carbanions, free radicals and carbenes; generation,
geometry and stability; nucleophiles and electrophiles.
2.2 Chemistry of aliphatic
: Nomenclature; alkenes-synthesis, reactions (free radical
halogenation) -- reactivity and selectivity, sulphonation-detergents;
cycloalkanes-Baeyer's strain theory; alkenes and alkynes-synthesis, electrohilic
addition reactions, Markownikov's rule, peroxide effects, 1- 3-dipolar addtion;
nucleophilic addition to electron-deficient alkenes; polymerisation; relative
acidity; synthesis and reactions of alkyl halides, alkanols, alkanals,
alkanones, alkanoic acids, esters, amides, nitriles, amines, acid anhydrides, a,
ß-unsaturated ketones, ethers and nitro compounds.
2.3 Stereochemistry of carbon compounds
: Elements of
symmetry, chiral and achiral compounds. Fischer projection formulae; optical
isomerism of lactic and tartaric acids, enantiomerism and diastereoisomerism;
configuration (relative and absolute); conformations of alkanes upto four
carbons, cyclohexane and dimethylcyclo-hexanes-their potential energy.
and R, S
-notations of compounds
containing chiral centres; projection formulae-Fischer, Newman and sawhorse-of
compounds containing two adjacent chiral centres; meso and dl-isomers, erythro
and threo isomers; racemization and resolution; examples of homotopic,
enantiotopic and diasteretopic atoms and groups in organic compounds,
geometrical isomers; E
Stereochemistry of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions.
2.4 Organometallic compounds
: Preparation and synthetic uses of Grignard reagents, alkyl lithium
2.5 Active methylene
: Diethyl malonate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl
cyanoacetate-applications in organic synthesis; tautomerism (keto-enol).
2.6 Chemistry of aromatic compounds
: Aromaticity; Huckel's rule; electrophilic aromatic
substitution-nitration, sulphonation, halogenation (nuclear and side chain),
Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, substituents effect; chemistry and
reactivity of aromatic halides, phenols, nitro-, diazo, diazonium and sulphonic
acid derivatives, benzyne reactions.
of biomolecules :
: Classification, reactions,
structure of glucose, D, L-configuration, osazone formation; fructose and
sucrose; step-up step-down of aldoses and ketoses, and ther interconversions,
(ii) Amino acdis
: Essential amino acids;
zwitterions, isoelectric point, polypeptides; proteins; methods of synthesis of
-amino acids. (iii) Elementary idea of oils, fats, soaps and detergents.
2.8 Basic principles and
of UV, visible, IR and NMR spectroscopy of simple
state : Deviation of real gases from the equation of state for an
ideal gas, van der Waals and Virial equation of state, critical phenomena,
principle of corresponding states, equation for reduced state. Liquification of
gases, distribution of molecular speed, collisions between molecules in a gas;
mean free path, speicific heat of gases
3.2 Thermodynamics : (i) First law
and its applications: Thermodynamic systems, states and processes,
work, heat and internal energy, zeroth law of thermodynamics, various types of
work done on a system in reversible and irreversible processes. Calorimetry and
thermochemistry, enthalpy and enthalpy changes in various physical and chemical
processes, Joule-Thomson effect, inversion temperautre. Heat capacities and
temperature dependence of enthalpy and energy changes.
law and its applications
: Spontaneity of a process, entropy and
entropy changes in various processes, free energy functions, criteria for
equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic
rule and its applications : Equilibrium bewteen liquid, solid and
vapours of a pure substance, Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its applications.
Number of components, phases and degrees of freedom; phase rule and its
applications; simple systems with one (water and sulphur) and two components
(lead-silver, salt hydrates). Distribution law, its modifications, limitations
3.4 Solutions : Solubility and its temperature dependence,
partially miscible liquids, upper and lower critical solution temperatres,
vapour pressures of liquids over their mixtures, Raoult's and Henry's laws,
fractional and steam distillations.
3.5 Colligative Properties : Dilute solutions and
colligative properties, determination of molecular weights using colligative
3.6 Electrochemistry : Ions in solutions, ionic equilibria,
dissociation constants of acids and bases, hydrolysis, pH and buffers, theory of
indicators and acid-base titrations. Conductivity of ionic solutions, its
variation with concentration, Ostwald's dilution law, Kohlrausch law and its
application. Transport number and its determination. Faraday's laws of
electrolysis, galvanic cells and measurements of their e.m.f., cell reactions,
standard cell, standard reduction potential, Nernst equation, relation between
thermodynamic quantities and cell e.m.f., fuel cells, potentiometric
kinetics : Rate of chemical reaction and its dependence on
concentrations of the reactants, rate constant and order of reaction and their
experimental determination; differential and integral rate equations for first
and second order reaction, half-life periods; temperature dependence of rate
constant and Arrhenius parameters; elementary ideas regarding collision and
transition state theory.
3.8 Photochemistry :
Absorption of light, laws of photochemistry, quantum yield, the excited state
and its decay by radiative, nonradiative and chemical pathways; simple
3.9 Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and
their characteristics, mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis; enzyme catalysed
reactions (Michaelis-Menten mechanism).
3.10 Colloids :
The colloidal state, preparation and purification of colloids and their
characteristics properties; lyophilic and lyophobic colloids and coagulation;
protection of colloids; gels, emulsions, surfactants and micelles.