Other Schools of Mauryan Period
Talking of other schools, Amravati school is the foremost. Its sculptures shows a mastery of stone sculpture. The monuments at Jaggayyapeta, Nagarjuna-konds and Amaravati are a classes by themselves. The Andhra sculpture is generally known as Amaravati schools. The stupas at Amaravati were made of a distinctive while green marble probably it was began about the time of Christ, and received its final carved faces and railings from about 150 A.D. to 200 A.D.
The nature art of Amaravati region is one of India's major and district styles. A great number of graceful and elongated figures on the reliefs imbue a sense of life and action that is unique in Indian art, not only that each figures is animated by an internal vitality, the quality of the surface further enhances the action of having a gluid quality reminding one of water-worn pebbles.
One of the great stupa railing (probably of the 3rd century A.D.) show the Buddha in Human form subduing a maddened elephant which had been sent by his jealous cousin, Devadatta, to attack him.
In the field of sculpture a round figure appears belonging to the 3rd century of A.D. It has a sure certain modulation of the flowing sculptural volume and illusion of life, both hallmarks of the late Amaravati school.
All the railings of the Amaravati stupa are made out of marble while the dome itself is covered with slabs of the same material. Unfortunately, the entire stupa is in ruins. Fragments of its railings have been partly taken to the British Museum. The sculptures of the stupa are quite different in style from those of northern India. The figures of Amaravati have slim blithe features and they are represented in most difficult poses and curves. However, as the scenes are mostly over-crowded, the general effect is not very pleasing, Indeed one characteristic and Amaravati is not disputed. The technical excellence of sculptures in caving plants and flowers, particularly the lotuses at Amaravati are most admirably represented in this school. The Buddha is mostly represented by symbols.
It is only recently excavations have revealed art works at Nagarjunakonda. Slabs of limestone illustate scenes from the Buddha's life.
Although the period under review is not known for architecture, there came into existence beautiful temples and monasteries. The famous tower of Kanishka of Peshawar was one of the wonders of Asia. Unfortunately, no trace has been left behind.
There is only one class of buildings which merit some attention and they are the caves hewn out of solid rocks. The caves of the Ashokan period were plan chambers. But the caves of this period are adorned with pillars and sculptures. Some were used as Chaityas or halls of worship. There are many such chaitya caves at Nashik, Bhoja, Bedsa, and Karle. The last one if regarded as the finest specimen because of the beauty of the sculptures on the front wall. The chaitya of Karle is the most impressive specimen of massive rock architecture. Monasteries or Viaharas were excavated near the chaityas. We have three viharas of this kind at Nasik.
Apart from these caves we know of several free standing pillars as the Garuda-dhavaja of Heliedorus. This period of times is really famous for independent for Buddhis structures. The most important of days monuments are the stupas distributed over an area of 125 kilometers all around Ellora. The most famous of them are at Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda.