Psychology Syllabus for Main Examination
PAPER - I
Foundations of Psychology
Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the
21st century; Psychology and scientific
methods; Psychology in relation to other
social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems.
2. Methods of Psychology:
Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative,
diagnostic and prognostic; Methods of
Research: Survey, observation, case-study
and experiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non-experimental design, Quasi-experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming,
grounded theory approach.
3. Research Methods:
Major steps in Psychological research
(problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research designs, sampling, tools of
data collection, analysis and interpretation
and report writing) Fundamental versus
applied research; Methods of data collect ion ( interview, observat ion, quest ionnaire); Research designs (ex-post facto
and experimental); Application of statistical technique (t - test, two way ANOVA correlation, regression and factor analysis);
Item response theory.
4. Development of Human Behaviour:
Growth and development; Principles of
development, Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human
behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in
socialization; Life span development -
Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across
major stages of the life span.
5. Sensation, Attention and Perception:
Sensation: concepts of threshold, absolute
and difference thresholds, signal-detection
and vigilance; Factors influencing attention including set and characteristics of
stimulus; Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences, perceptual defence-factors influencing space and depth perception, size
estimation and perceptual readiness; The
plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal perception.
Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models); The Processes of extinction, discrimination and generalization;
Programmed learning, probability learning,
self-instructional learning, concepts; Types
and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment, modeling and social learning.
Encoding and remembering; Short term
memory, Long term memory, Sensory
memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory:
The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval
failure: Metamemory; Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.
8. Thinking and Problem Solving:
Piaget's theory of cognitive development;
Concept formation processes; Information
processing, Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in
problem solving, Methods of problem solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and
judgment; Recent trends.
9. Motivation and Emotion:
Psychological and physiological basis of
motivation and emotion; Measurement of
motivation and emotion; Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic
and intrinsic motivation; Factors influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues.
10. Intelligence and Aptitude:
Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence - Spearman, Thurstone, Gullford Vernon,
Sternberg and J.P; Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement
of intelligence and aptitudes, concept of
IQ, deviation IQ, constancy of IQ; Measurement of multiple intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental,
humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type
approaches); Measurement of personality
(projective tests, pencil-paper test); The
Indian approach to personality; Training
for personality development; Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory; The notion of self in different traditions.
12. Attitudes, Values and Interests:
Definition of attitudes, values and interests;
Components of attitudes; Formation and
maintenance of attitudes; Measurement of
attitudes, values and interests; Theories of
attitude change; Strategies for fostering
values; Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing others behaviour; Theories of attribution; Recent trends.
13. Language and Communication:
Human language - Properties, structure
and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis; Theories of language development -
Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types
of communication - effective communication training.
14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern
Computer application in the psychological
laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence ; Psychocybernetics;
Study of consciousness - sleep - wake
schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation,
meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states;
Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception Simulation studies.
PAPER - II
Psychology: Issues and Applications
1. Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences:
The nature of individual differences; Characteristics and construction of standardized
psychological tests; Types of psychological tests; Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests; hical issues in the use of
2. Psychological well being and Mental
Concept of health-ill health; Positive health,
well being; Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders,
schizophrenia and delusional disorders;
personality disorders, substance abuse
disorders); Factors influencing positive
health, well being, life style and quality of
life; Happiness disposition.
3. Therapeutic Approaches:
Psychodynamic therapies ; Behaviour
therapies; Client centered therapy; Cognitive therapies; Indigenous therapies (Yoga,
Meditation); Bio-feedback therapy; Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill;
Fostering mental health.
4. Work Psychology and Organisational
Personnel selection and training; Use of
psychological tests in the industry; Training and human resource development;
Theories of work motivation – Herzberg,
Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and
Lawler, Vroom; Leadership and participatory management; Advertising and marketing; Stress and its management; Ergonomics; consumer psychology; Managerial effectiveness; Transformational leadership; Sensitivity training; Power and politics in organizations.
5. Application of Psychology to Educational Field:
Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process; Learning
styles; Gifted, retarded, learning disabled
and their training; Training for improving
memory and better academic achievement;
Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance
and career counseling; Use of psychological tests in educational institutions; Effective strategies in guidance programmes.
6. Community Psychology:
Definition and concept of community psychology; Use of small groups in social action; Arousing community consciousness
and action for handling social problems;
Group decision making and leadership for
social change; Effective strategies for social change.
7. Rehabilitation Psychology:
Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention
programmes - role of psychologists ;
Organising of services for rehabilitation of
physical ly, mental ly and social ly chal -
lenged persons including old persons,
Rehabilitation of persons suffering from
substance abuse, juvenile delinquency,
criminal behaviour; Rehabilitation of victims of violence, Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS
victims, the role of social agencies.
8. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups:
The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation; Social, physical, cultural and economic
consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups; Educating and motivating the
disadvantaged towards development; Relative and prolonged deprivation.
9. Psychological problems of social integration:
The concept of social integration; The problem of caste, class, religion and language
conflicts and prejudice; Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the in-group
and out-group; Causal factors of social
conflicts and prejudices; Psychological
strategies for handling the conflicts and
prejudices; Measures to achieve social integration.
10. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media:
The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the
role of psychologists; Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in
the field of IT and mass media; Distance
learning through IT and mass media; Entrepreneurship through e-commerce; Multilevel marketing; Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media; Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.
11. Psychology and Economic development:
Achievement motivation and economic
development; Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour; Motivating and training
people for entrepreneurship and economic
development; Consumer rights and consumer awareness, Government policies for
promot ion of ent repreneurship among
youth including women entrepreneurs.
12. Application of psychology to environment and related fields:
Environmental psychology-effects of noise,
pollution and crowding; Population psychology: psychological consequences of
population explosion and high population
density; Motivating for small family norm;
Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.
13. Application of psychology in other fields:
14. Psychology of Gender:
- Military Psychology
Devising psychological tests for defence
personnel for use in selection, Training,
counseling; training psychologists to work
with defence personnel in promoting positive health; Human engineering in defence.
- Sports Psychology
Psychological interventions in improving
performance of athletes and sports. Persons participating in Individual and Team
- Media influences on pro and antisocial
- Psychology of terrorism.
Issues of discrimination, Management of
diversity; Glass ceiling effect, Self fulfilling
prophesy, Women and Indian society.