To practice of defecating in open as like field, bushes, forest, open bodies of water etc. at the place of toilet is known as open defecation. Defecating in open is very ancient system. It was believed that defecating in open less harm when done in areas with low population. With development and urbanization, open defecating become a challenge, public health issues and human dignity also.
According to most recent Swachhta status report by NSSO, more than half of the population of the nation defecates in open. It is a major public health and sanitation problem. And in rural areas, about 65% of the rural population defecates in open. The condition of India is bad as compare to Indonesia, Nigeria, Bangladesh and even Pakistan. Surprisingly, only 5% of population of Bangladesh and about 25% of Pakistan whose get independence after India
Open defecation is a major cause if fatal diarrhea. Everyday about 2000 children aged less than five succumbed to diarrhea and on every 40 second, a life is lost due to diarrhea which is cause of open defecation. It is depressive that all needless is suffering from diarrhea is actually preventable. It may cause of rape.
Eliminating open defecation in India by 2nd October 2019- the 150 birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi- is one the key aims of swachh bharat abhiyan movement launched by the prime minister of India Narendra Modi two years ago on Gandhi Jayanti. If Hariyana and Uttrakhand become open defecation free under tenure of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, if 1.2 crores could be built since 2014-2015, then we can say that india can be open defecation free by 2019. Following are the some keys:
In villege, despite having toilet, people practice defecating in open because they think that it works as strong fertilizer and organic manure as compare to all. So, first of all, we will have to change the mindset of the people (villagers) and they should know that succumbing children to diarrhea and loosing their life is more harmful than open defecation works as a organic manure and strong fertilizer.
We can make toilet sexy, so that people want to have them. When one say 'toilet', people often think that dark, dirty and smelly place. Instead, we need them to think, toilet as rooms of happiness and cleanliness.
Piped water supply is one of the most essential of construction of toilet. It needs to be ensure that piped water supply should be continuous and available for the rest of the toilets to be built.
Absence of proper drainage means that fecal waste accumulate near the toilet area, resulting in health hazards. Laying of new and better drainage system is essential to built the toilet in urban areas.
Open defecation is cause of health hazard, rape, human dignity etc. The question is that will India be able to open defecation free by 2019? If so, how? Yes, India is able to do. It can be eliminated by 2019 because, when 1.2 crores toilet can be built since 2014-2015, then india has ability to become open defecation free by 2019. Government and people, both will have to come forward and walk matching step by step to eliminate this.
- Akash Kumar