El-nino refers to the warming over surface of Pacific Ocean near South America. This warming occurs after every 5 to 7 years. Due to El-nino effect, the monsoon in India becomes below normal that causes draught, bad impact on rainfed agriculture and also affect the social life of society. Last El-nino was faced in India in 2009 caused server draught. In India received good monsoon since last 4 to 5 years so that India have sufficient stock of agriculture products and also our reservoir has enough water to meet out this situation.
In India, there are two crop seasons i.e khariff crop and rabi crop. The El-nino may affect the khariff crop because these crops mainly depend on oncoming monsoon, but it might be less effectible on Rabi-crop.
We have different climates in India i.e. heavy rainfall, scanty rainfall, dry and wet seasons etc. Here in certain places like North-East this received 1200 to 1800cm average annual rainfall and west Rajasthan and Kutch of Gujarat gets 300 to 700cm average annual rainfall. It means these regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat face scanty rainfall every year. The farmers of these regions have sown the crop i.e. Maize, Bajra, Jawar, Grount nut etc. Generally these crops refer's to poor-section staple food crops. These crops are enriched of sufficient amount of protein and nutrition etc which fulfill the needs of human body. By sowing these crops in mainly regions where monsoon will become scanty we can overcome the El-nino effect to some extent. The Government had constructed Indira Gandhi Canal from the confluence river satluj and river Beas in Punjab to North West Rajasthan. By Indira Gandhi canal govt. has overcome the difficulties of North West Rajasthan where rainfall is scanty. Due to this they converted part areas of Desert into lush green agriculture fields.
Recently in 2013, the UPA govt. has passed the National Food Security Bill 2013 i.e. Right to food act. This Act provides the guaranteed food grain for two-third of population and will cover 75% families in rural & 50% families in urban. By this act govt. provide subsidized 5kg food grains per person per month through public distribution system at the rate of Rs 3/kg for rice, Rs 2/kg for Wheat & Rs 1/kg of course cereals (Pulses) for three years. The eldest women above 18 years of age are entitled as a head of the house to get these benefits. Now, this is the very first year after enactment of food security act 2013 and the same year country will face below normal monsoon because of El-nino effect.
Now this is the challenge to our new govt. to make available the food grain to all over the country & even on subsidized rate for poor-section. The poorest already entitled for 35kg of grains under the "Antodaya Yojana" is also the extra burden to the new govt.
The El-nino effect on agriculture sector can be overcome by adopting the certain measures by the govt. The Govt. should keep their eyes open on the forecasting of metrological dept. about the monsoon and direct the agencies to make aware about the monsoon to our farmers so that they accordingly sow only those crops which will stand in scanty of rainfall or those crops which nourishes by only available ground water.
In future, govt. will overcome the El-nino effect by utilizing efficiently the water of Himalaya flowing river which are perennial in nature by way of connecting the large area of our country by interconnecting the river by river or river by canal. Due to this, the farmer's community will slowly reduce their dependency over the rainfall. In India when monsoon becomes normal or better than normal, the production of food grains will be doubled or tripled to the normal year but, we have limited arrangements to stock these grains for future use. Excess grain is almost stranded in open area and spoiled by the rain or fed by insect and gets wasted. By proper implementation of policies we can overcome with the effect of El-nino.
Recently hear the news that the production of food grains 2013 to 2014 reach record level high which also offset the El –nino effect up to some extent.