Emotional Intelligence is the summative of abilities, competencies and skills that signify a collection of knowledge in order to cope with life effectively. Therefore, it is closely related to the personal and professional growth of the individuals who have to take decisions under stressful and difficult situations. The model of emotional intelligence is a debatable topic among psychological researcher recently especially with reference to the way it affects today's workforce. Businesses are basically people, so anything that impacts the efficiency of people's minds also impacts the businesses they operate. Emotional intelligence, abbreviated as EI, refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic. Emotional Intelligence has generated great interest in scientific fields (Mayer & Salovey, 1997).
Gardner's renewal of social intelligence under the facade of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence proved a powerful push to those interested in emotional intelligence as a skill and a competency that was being ignored in the context of training and development of skilled personnel both as pupils in the school system and as producers in the context of administrative and economic systems.
There are three main models of emotional intelligence. The first model by Peter Salovey and John Mayer perceives emotional intelligence as a form of pure intelligence, that is, emotional intelligence is a cognitive ability. A second model by Reuven Bar-On visualized emotional intelligence as a mixed intelligence, consisting of cognitive ability and personality aspects. This model emphasizes how cognitive and personality factors influence general well-being. The third model, introduced by Daniel Goleman, also observes emotional intelligence as a mixed intelligence involving cognitive ability and personality aspects. However, unlike the model proposed by Reuven Bar-On, Goleman's model focuses on how cognitive and personality factors determine workplace success.
Reuven Bar-On (1988) has retained emotional intelligence in the framework of personality theory, specifically a model of well-being. Bar-On's model of emotional intelligence relates to the potential for performance and success, instead of performance or success itself, and is considered process-oriented rather than outcome-oriented (Bar-On, 2002). It focuses on a range of emotional and social abilities, including the ability to be aware of, understand, and express oneself, the ability to be aware of, understand, and relate to others, the ability to deal with strong emotions, and the ability to adapt to change and solve problems of a social or personal nature (Bar-On, 1997). In his model, Bar-On summaries have five components of emotional intelligence that include intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood. Bar-On postulates that emotional intelligence develops over time and that it can be improved through training, programming, and therapy (Bar-On, 2002).
Table: Table 2: Bar-On's Model of Emotional Intelligence
Peter Salovey and John Mayer first proposed their theory of emotional intelligence in 1990. It can be said that the term Emotional Intelligence was first introduced in the scientific literature in 1990. Since then, the development of models of emotional intelligence and research in this field has increased substantially. Pure theory of Salovey and Mayer of emotional intelligence integrates major ideas in the arena of Intelligence and emotion. It is said that intelligence involves the capacity to carry out abstract reasoning. From emotion research, emotions are indications that express regular and discernible meanings about relationships and that at a number of basic emotions are universal (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso, 2002). They suggest that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. They then posit that this ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviours (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso, 2000). Mayer and Salovey's notion of emotional intelligence is based within a model of intelligence, that is, it strives to define emotional intelligence within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. It proposes that emotional intelligence is comprised of two areas: experiential (ability to perceive, respond, and manipulate emotional information without necessarily understanding it) and strategic (ability to understand and manage emotions without necessarily perceiving feelings well or fully experiencing them).
Mayer and Salovey's (1997) Four-Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence
Goleman: A Mixed Model of Emotional Intelligence: Goleman (1995-2003) has promoted the notion of emotional intelligence and formulated it in terms of a theory of job and work performance. According to Goleman, five primary domains characterize emotional intelligence:
Goleman's (2001) Emotional Intelligence Competencies
Goleman's work has been influential to develop the concept of emotional intelligence in the context of work organizations and administrative units. In this application of emotional intelligence, Goleman subtly shifts his discourse from multiple intelligences to multiple competencies. He groups work competencies into three categories that include purely technical skills (such as accounting and business planning); cognitive (such as analytical reasoning); and competencies demonstrating emotional intelligence (such as the ability to work with others and effectiveness in leading change). Goleman argues that emotional intelligence has importance when work is uncertain, increasingly interdependent and knowledge based. Goleman further argues that in the new economy, emotional skills are required to establish conditions for sharing knowledge and developing trust which is vital for the development of functional teams.
Emotional intelligence is measured using the Emotional Intelligence quotient (EQ) which is more of a description of the capacity or ability to perceive, then assess and eventually manage one's own and others emotions. Several measures of emotional intelligence are used in scientific research. Two of these measures are the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) and the Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SREIT).
Commonly Used Measures of Emotional Intelligence
There are three main emotional intelligence models which include:
1. The Trait Emotional Intelligence model: Trait emotional intelligence or Trait emotional self-efficacy is described as "a constellation or behaviour dispositions and self-perceptions regarding a person's ability to recognize, process and utilize emotional-laden information" where the trait emotional intelligence should be measured within the framework of an individual's personality.
The trait emotional intelligence is measured by numerous tools of self-report and include the EQ, the Six seconds emotional intelligence assessment, the Swinburne University emotional intelligence test (SUEIT) and the Schuttle self-report emotional intelligence test (SSEIT). A trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQUE) that is in 15 languages was designed specially in an open- access manner to measure emotional intelligence compressively.
2. Emotional intelligence model based on ability: Salovey and Mayer reviewed their prior Emotional Intelligence definition and improved it to read as "the ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions and regulate emotion to promote personal growth" (Mayer, J.D. and Salovey, P.,1997). This model maintains emotions as vital information sources that enable a person to make good use of the social environment. According to the model, an individual's ability to process emotional information varies from one person to another and certain adaptive behaviours manifest themselves in this ability. The model thus goes further to propose four ability types that include:
As an administrator and leader, one should manage these elements.
1. Self-awareness: If people are self-aware, they always know their feelings and how emotions affect the people around them. Being self-aware people are in administrator or leadership position also means having a clear picture of their strengths and weaknesses.
2. Self-regulation: administrators and leaders who regulate themselves successfully hardly verbally attack others, make rushed or emotional decisions, stereotype people, or compromise their values. Self-regulation is all about staying in control. This element of emotional intelligence also covers an administrators and leader's flexibility and commitment to personal accountability.
To improve ability to self-regulate, person must
3. Motivation: Self-motivated administrators and leaders regularly work toward their goals. And they have extremely high standards for the quality of their work. Administrators can improve motivation by following method:
4. Empathy: Empathy is critical to manage a successful team or organization. Administrators and leaders with empathy have the ability to put themselves in someone else's situation. They support and develop the people on their team, challenge others who are acting unfairly, give constructive feedback, and listen to those who need it.
5. Social skills: Administrators and leaders must develop social skills. People who do well in this element of emotional intelligence are great communicators. They are just as open to hearing bad news as good news, and they are experts at getting their team to support them and be excited about a new mission or project. Administrators who have good social skills are also good at managing change and resolving conflicts tactfully.
Components of emotional intelligence (Daniel Goleman, 1998):
Although emotional intelligence has numerous benefits in administration and workplace, major drawback is testing of emotional intelligence. Main concerns with testing methods is the discussion on whether emotional intelligence is based on a person's temperament and personality, or whether it is a learned response developed through interpersonal skills and experiences. Testing based on the nature aspect will look at personality, emotional stability and conscientiousness of the person to determine emotional intelligence. The nurture advocates will look at socially accepted aspects in the immediate area, leadership skills, teamwork and learned interpersonal skills.
To summarize, Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify and understand emotions and their impact on behaviour and attitudes. Those who have a high degree of emotional intelligence are in tune with both their own emotions and the emotions of other people with whom they come in contact. Recently, focus on understanding emotions in organizations has resulted in increased attention to the role of Emotional Intelligence.