Major Threats Faced By Amazon Rainforest And Consequences Of Reduced Forest Cover In Amazon Rainforest Region.
Amazon rainforests are unique and irreplaceable units. Its destruction is worrisome because it affects the lifeblood for entire amazon region. These forests are the most bio diverse in the world.
- Illegal and purely planned mining activities for economic motives without taking proper measure for the protection of the ecosystem.
- Over extraction of natural resources such as timber, medicinal plants, fodder, fruits etc. results in the depletion of the available resources.
- Over logging - for paper industry which depend on trees, for the making of furniture, for building purposes.
- Energy projects such as hydro-electric power projects and industrial developments which affect the peaceful living of wildlife. Large amount of carbon dioxide and methane are released due to such industrial activities.
- Clearing of forest by small and local farmers for extending their agricultural area to produce more subsistence crops.
- Deforestation and successive conversion into grasslands for animal grazing.
- Constructional and developmental activities such as roads, oil & gas developments, pipelines etc. through forests.
- Poaching of animals that are considered vulnerable, which are prominent members of a food chain create imbalance in the food web.
- Increased human intervention in forest affects the normal life of nature and results in pollution and contamination of soil, water, air and other essential elements.
The destruction of rainforest makes the land more exposed to sunlight. This land absorbs energy from sunlight and cause an increase in the temperature. The consumption of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis also decreases resulting in accumulation of more CO2 in atmosphere leading to global warming.
The trees play an important role in formation and blocking of the clouds and initiating rainfall. The destruction of forest severely affects the rainfall pattern, thus leading to lesser availability of water.
Thinning of forest canopy due to deforestation allow the sunlight to fall on the forest floor. The dry leaves and branches get heated and chances of occurrence of forest fires increases during the summer season. The smoke inhibits cloud formation which further reduces rainfall.
The destruction of trees also affects the life forms that depend on these for their survival. The birds and animals will face scarcity of food. Vulnerability of one species in an ecosystem indirectly affects all others.
LESS NATURAL RANGE
The animals that depend on plants have to acclimatize themselves within the available area for their food when the forest is destroyed. This is the case for the predators also that prey on these herbivores. As a result more competition occurs within the system and less fittest will face extinction.
DISRUPTION OF WATER CYCLE
Decreased forest area results in decreased rainfall. The availability of water decreases and demand increases. This affects the water cycle which in turn have a severe impact on the vegetation.
Increased human activities, construction of roads, pipelines and industries exploits the available forest resources. Improper usage of resources such as water, soil etc. and emission of untreated waste products pollute the forest region.
Absence of trees to hold soil results in soil erosion. This erosion removes the fertile top soil and minerals far away , leaving behind less fertile land.
The people who depend on the rainforest for their survival and existence also faces threats due to the destruction of amazon rainforests. The availability of resources reduces with decrease in forest cover. Creation of protected areas, promotion of sustainable biodiversity and cutting down of carbon emission are the immediate steps that can be taken to control the destruction of this forests.