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Gandhara And Mathura School Of Art

What is the Gandhara school of art?

Architecture in association with sculpture enjoyed the liberal patronage of Kanishka. The style of this age is known as the Gandhara school of art. The forms of Greek art were applied to Buddhist subjects with reasonable amount of success. Images of the Buddha appeared in the likeness of Apollo and Yaksha Kubera in the fashion of Zeus of the Greek. The drapery follows the Hellenistic models. This particulars style was later transmitted to the Far-East through Chinese Turkista. The figure of the Buddha in China and Japan reveal distinct traces of the Hellenistic modes of vogue at the court of Kanishka. Excavatations in the Kotan (Chinese Turkestan) prove that it was the meeting place of four civilization - Greek, Indian, Iranian and Chinese.

The Kushan dynasty reached its apex-during the days of Kanishka, who ruled over a flourishing nation strategically located to control the gates to the rice network of trade crossing Asia. He even sent an envoy to the Emperor Trajan in Rome. Kanishka coins also reveal his desire to live harmoniously with various people and religions within his domain and beyond it. The elaborate parathion struck on the face of his coins illustrates particularly the various religions, practised beyond Gandhara-deities of Persia and Gods of Rome, Alaxandria and the Hellanised orient and finally Shiva and Skand Kumar representing brahminical India. The most remarkable image appeared on a gold coin of Kanishka with standing figure of the Buddha.

The Gandhara sculptures have been found in the ruins of Taxila and in various ancient sites in Afganishtan and in West Pakistan. They consist mostly of the images of the Buddha and relief sculptures presenting scenes from Buddhist texts. A number of Bodhisatava figures were carved out. A figure of Gandhara shows the first sermon in the deer park and the death of the Buddha. In all these figures there is a realistic treatment of the body although it is draped. In these sculptures there is a tendency to mould the human body in a realistic manner paying great attention to accuracy and physical details particularly in the presentation of muscles, moustaches, etc. Also the representation of the thick bold fold lines forms a distinct characteristic. Thus the Gandhara sculptures offer a striking contrast to what has been discovered elsewhere in India.

The Gandhara art primarily depicted the Buddhist themes. The mother of the Buddha resembles an Anthenian matron. Apollo-like face went into the making of a Buddhist scene. Perhaps one of the loveliest Gandhara sculptures reflecting a western subject is the figure of Athena of Rome at Lahore. This sculpture is made out of blue-grave schist, which is found only in Gandhara. Although the technique of Gandhara was essentially borrowed from Greece this particular art is essentially Indian in spirit. It was employed to give expression to the beliefs and practices of Bhddhists. Except for a few exceptions, no Greek art motif has been detected in the specimens. The Gandhara artist had the hand of a Greek, but the heart of an Indian.

There are large Gandhara stupas and monasteries that have survived as ruins at Guldara in Afganishtan. Later a votive stupa from loriyaan Tangai in Gandhara has been found. If this is treated as the model of stupa in Gandhara, the stupa has undergone great changes form great stupa at Sanchi with its dome structure. In Gandhara the dome grew taller while the square railing at its summit was enlarged and elaborated.

The greatest of all gandhara stupas is the one erected by Kanishka outside the gates of modern Peshawar. Here also the stupa had not survived but a reliquary (receptacle for relics) of Kanishka have been found. One more such beliquary has been found at Bimaran in Afganishtan.

This particular kind of Gandhara style continued at least till the 8th century. It was along with Caravan route joining Taxila with Bactria that one of the greatest monastic centers of Buddhism flourished. It is the Bamiyan valley. The paintings in the valley reveal the motives adopted from Sassanian fabric designs. The most spectacular creation carved from the cliffs at Bamiyan are two colossal standing figures of the Buddha, the largest of them began as high as 175 ft. in its stone niche. It was finished with lime plaster. The image reflects the Gupta style of early fifth century. Above the figure's head are fragments of painting resembling those created by Gupta Buddhists at Ajanta.

Stucco was a popular technique in Gandhara art. A large number of monasteries of Afganishtan are decorated with stucco images. Also terracotta was used particularly among those who could not afford stone sculpture. Terracotta figures were also used as decorations in homes and as toys. All these provide interesting glimpses of the dresses and fashions of the time.

Another revealing feature is the presence of the images of Mother Goddess, as the worship of this goddess remain an essential religious expression of the ordinary people. Buddhism, too came to be associated with fertility cult and other popular religious cults. This association in evident from the symbolic importance of the stupa and the brackets with female figures as can be seen at Sanchi. As a matter of fact, these figures are a sophisticated version of Mother Goddess images.

Apart from Gandhara, sculptures appeared at Sarnath near Benaras, Mathura on the Yamuna and 'Amravati' in Andhara Pradesh. They all offer many examples of excellent sculpture. Each of them has a distinct style. The most well-known are the elaborate base relief from Amravati. Over many years this form was pursued. Most of it was probably executed in Huvishka reign.

Simultaneously with the appearance of Buddha icon in Gandhara Buddha portrait based upon Yaksha model began to be created in the southern worship or Mathura. This place was a religious center even before the arrival of the Kushans. Understandably the Jains continued their activities along with those of the Buddhists in the Kushan and Gupta periods. Some scholars believe that the Mathura worship created a Buddha icon at least as early as Gandhara. Close to Mathura is a sanctuary consisting of stone figures of Kushan rulers and deities. Only mutilated aculptures are recovered. They are carved from sikri sand-stone which is red mottle with cream spots. Two great fragmentary protrains are of king Vima Kadphises and standing king Kanishka. The garments worn by the Kushans can be known from these two pieces.

Apart from creating the Buddha figures in the form of Bodhisattva, the Mathura school did produce the master-piece of Buddha in the mid 2nd century. It is carved from the local sand-stone and it is a sitting figure. Unlike the majority of statis Buddhas of Gandhara wropped in the toga-like sanghatis this Buddha of a warmer clime is dressed as a true Indian wearing transparent muslim garments. Such like transparent textile being shown in a distinctive Mathura feature.

Some hold the view that the Buddha image was evolved independently of both Mathura school of art and Gandhara school of art since there is a striking difference between the two. The Gandhara school laid stress on accuracy of anatomical details and physical beauty while that of Mathura strove to impart sublime and spiritual impression to the figures. The first was realistic and the other idealistic.

Others hold the view that the Hellenistic artists of Gandhara are the earliest iconographers while others attributed to the sculptures of Mathura. However, it is generally held that sculptures made by the former have been reckoned as those belonging to the gandhara school, while those made by the latter have bee ascribed to the Mathura school. It is probably that images came to be made almost simultaneously by both the schools, for the sculptural and iconographic features of their products differ in essential details.

Differences Between Mathura School of Arts and Gandhara School of Arts

Even though both schools of art seem to have developed during the reign of the Kushanas, they are differently located at the Northwest Frontier and Mathura. In due course of time, it appears that the Mathura, Gandhara arts cross-fertilized, and the result of this synthesis refined and purified the Buddha image that appeared in the Gupta period.

Gandhara School of Art

Mathura School of Art

It is a style of Buddhist visual art.

It deals with subjects from Hinduism (both Vaishnav and Shavite images) and Jainism as well.

It has Hellenistic features in the Buddha image. Religious influences include Buddhism and Hellenistic realism

The Buddha image at Mathura is modelled on the lines of earlier Yaksha images inspired by Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism

The expression of calmness is the centre point of attraction of Gandhar Buddha.

Mathura Buddha is delighted in mood, seated in Padmasana and right hand in Abhyamudra and left hand on left thigh showing masculinity.

In Gandhara images, eyes are longer; ear lobes shorter and noses sharper and better defined.

Mathura tradition, Buddha images have longer ear lobes, thicker lips, wider eyes and prominent nose.

In Gandhara Style, the Halo is not decorated, in general, and the images are much expressive

Mathura Style the halo around the head of Buddha was heavily decorated with geometrical motifs and the images are less expressive.

Buddha sculptures in the Gandhara style include

Spiritual Buddha

Sad Buddha

Bearded Buddha

Less ornamentation

Great detailing


Buddha sculptures in the Mathura style include

Delighted Buddha

Less spiritual

Shaven head and face



Graceful posture of Buddha

Seated in Padmasana

Buddha surrounded by two monks: Padmapani (holding Lotus) and Vajrapani( Holding Vajra)

The Standing Buddhas of the Sravasti, Sarnath, and Kausambhi

Sarvatobhadrika image of 4 Jain Jinas

In Gandhara School images were carved with finer details (Curly hair, anatomical accuracy, spatial depth, and foreshortening) and Buddha was carved out in various Mudras like

Abhayamudra- Don’t fear

Bhumisparshamudra -Touching the earth

Dhyana mudra- Meditation

Dharmachakramudra- A preaching mudra

During Early period light volume having fleshy body was carved. In later Periods fleshiness got reduced and Buddha was carved out in various Buddha in Yogi postures

Greek factors like wavy hair, large forehead, long Mudras

Bluish- Grey Mica schist and

Grey sandstone was used.

This school used spotted red stone for making the sculptures.

It was a fusion of Greco-Roman/Hellenisitc and Indian styles.

This greek influence is also called Graeco-Buddhist School of Art

It was inspired by the early Indian Buddhist arts of Bharhut and Sanchi of MP. So it was purely indigenous with no foreign influence.

It flourished from about the middle of the first century BC to about the fifth century AD in the Gandhara region (north-western India).

The origin has been traced back to the middle of the second century BC, but it was only in the first century AD that its genuine progress began. Originated in Mathura.

Questions in UPSC exam

  1. Highlight the Central Asian and Greco Bacterian elements in the Gandhara Art. (150 words, 2019 mains)