BRAIN DRAIN A DECADE AGO AND NOW

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Essay Contest for UPSC Exam for IAS

Brain drain
Brain drain in general refers to the migration of educated people from one country to another for job
opportunities, higher studies, high salary, quality of life, political stability, access to advanced
technology. Primarily brain drain occurs when educated people of our country go to work in other
developed countries. The term “brain drain” was coined by the Royal Society to describe the emigration
of “scientists and technologists” to North America from post-war Europe. Another source indicates that
this term was first used in the United Kingdom to describe the influx of Indian scientists and engineers.
Numerous outflow of skilled and trained person mainly include high skilled engineers, medical
professionals and scientists.
Factors for brain drain
Push factors which push people to move to foreign countries include: Absence of research facilities in
the home country. Economic underdevelopment of the country. Political instability, poor quality of life,
limited access to health care, and a shortage of economic opportunity,underemployment,low wage or
salary, lack of research and other facilities ,desire for better urban life, better career expectations,
satisfactory working facilities and lifestyle conditions, psychological factors.
Example of brain drain?
The brain drain problem refers to the situation where a country loses its best workers. For example,
skilled workers in developing countries such as India or Pakistan may be attracted by better rates of pay
and working conditions in developed countries, such as the US and Western Europe.
Negative effects of brain drain
Brain drain can have a negative impact on the sending region, such as reduction of human capital,
limited capacity to innovate, reduced economic growth, demographic shifts, and a higher cost of public
goods. The departure of skilled workers can weaken developing countries, especially smaller ones, by
depriving them of important skills and workforce. This can prevent or limit innovation, business growth
and national development. A nations development can be measured by the working educated people of
that country. If this power shifts to other countries there will be drastic reduction in development.
Positive effect of brain drain
the possibility of migration encourages investment in education because of the potential high returns
abroad from educated migrants. Arguably, brain drain can thus eventually increase income equality in
the country of origin.
Methods to reduce brain drain
Rural development, tackling under employment, proper taxation and payment policy, changes in
placement and work culture.
There can be various employment opportunities developed in the sectors of education, women
empowerment, agriculture, handicrafts, etc. where highly skilled youth can contribute to the
development and also earn a decent income through their contribution.

What can be really done that works out for the people and it’s country other than theoretical
evaluation of factors that cause brain drain. This can be a challenging situation to country to reduce the
outflow.
Proper facilities and advanced technologies in educational institutions and working areas can be the
measure to this.
Proper placement drives-Satisfactory placements of students to companies and jobs according to their
achievements and professional hardwork there is proper campus selection and placements given to
students soon after they finish their professional courses this can create a revolutionary change in the
reduction of brain drain. Now a days most of the private colleges have campus drives but fail to reach
the expectations of students. On other hand there are no campus placements for medical ,dental
students and no income for the future outstanding doctors campus placements for doctors to reputed
institutions ,hospitals, health centers can also improve the situation.
Improvement in educational and IT field-The latest global summit held for IT companies has made a
revolutionary change in world of information technology. Latest advancements into technology and
innovations have proved India at global level further improvements needs to done in order to improve
salary and facilities in companies. Increasing additional benefits to family members of the employed
person in companies can also add a benefit to the growth.
Psychological shift of people’s thinking-the growing trend to work in foreign countries has increased.
There has been a psychological thinking that foreign li offers good opportunities than our country.
People feel great if they shift to developed countries. Hence there is also a need to shift this
psychological myth .this can only be achieved by improving the working condition and facilities in our
country thus encouraging our workforce to remain in motherland and work for its development.

-Dr Rashmi bhat

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