SAIVISMA. The worhisp of Shiva or Rudra goes back to the Harappan and Vedic times. In the Yajurveda we have the shatarudriya. The Taittinriya tells us that the whole universe is the manisfestation of Rudra. Some of the Upanishads, the Mahabharata and some Puranas glorify Siva or Rudra. The sacred literature of the Shaivas is called Shaivagama. Shrikantha places it side byside with the Vedas. Madhavacharya refers to the four schools of Shaivism - Nakulishapashupata, Shaiva, Pratyabhijna, (Kashmir Shaivism) and Raseshvara. Besides these we find mention of two more sects, Kapalike and Kalamukha, in Yamuna's Agamapramanya. Shaivism of the 'Shaiva' type is further divided into Vira Shaivism or or Shakti vishistadvaita and Shaiva Siddhanta. The former is also known as Lingayata or Satsthala. Shaiva Siddhanta is the representative of the Southern Shaivism and Pratayabhijna or Kashmira Shaivism is the representative of the Northern Shaivism.
B. It is certain that saivism and Vaisnavism developed almost simultaneously and have complementary references to eachother. Siva worship is referred to in the Tamil epics silapadikarna and mamimekhalai. The anthropomorphic as well as the Phallic figures of Siva are found in early art. The Mathura sculpture of the late Kushan period shows four faces of Siva carved on four shafts joined together. Coins of Sakas, Parthians and the Kushan rulers depict Siva in the human form relining on the sacred bull, the Nandi. The God Siva is mentioned by different names in the literature namely Ishwara, Mahadeva, Mahesvra, Shankara, Januardha, bholenath. (Shakti) ie.e Parvati his sons Skanda i.e. Kartikeya the Bull, the Moon, The Ganges, Snakes, the tiger, the trishul are also worshipped. Saivism was patronized by Shashank of Bengal, the Matiraka of Valvavi, besides these dynasty almost all dynasties of India including the Rajputas practiced the cult of Shiva.