NOTE ON PLACES AND AREAS IN ANCIENT INDIA
12. BARHUT in central Indian is famous for Buddhist Stupa and stone railings which replaced the wooden ones in the Sunga period. Barhut sculptures depict the visit of king Ajatasatru to the Buddha. Barhut along with Sanchi and Bodh-Gaya represent the first organized art activity of the Indian people as a whole. Furthermore, all these clearly indicate the transition of sculpture from wood to stone.
13. BARYGAZA OR BHARUKACHCHA (Broach) was the oldest and largest northern most entrepot on the mouth of the Narmada river in modern Maharashtra. It handled the bulk of the trade with western Asia (Jataka stories and the Periplus mention it). It was also one of the district head quarters of the Saka rulers. According to Jain traditions, it was the capital of the Saka empire. It was international trade that mode Barygaza important in ancient India.
14. BARBARICUM was an important port in the Indus delta, receiving Chinese furs and silks through Bacteria for export to the West. It added to the growing prosperity of India in the first century A.D.
15. BADAMI (MODERN NAME FOR VATAPI) in Bijapur district was founded by pulkesin I as an early capital of the Western Chalukyas. It as a hill-fort and an exquisite cave temple of lord Vishnu excavated during the rule of Manglesh, the Chalukya ruler. Huen-tsang visited it.
16. BODH-GAYA situated six miles south of Gaya in Bihar on the western bank of the Nilajan river, was the place where the Buddha attained enlightenement. It was part of the Magadha janapada.
17. BANAVASI (north kanara in Karnataka) also known as Vaijayanti, was the capital of the Kadambas who were defeated by the Chalukya king Kirtivarman during the last quarter of the 6th century A.D. According to the Ceylonese chronicles Ashoka sent a mission to Deccan with the Monk Rkshita who went as far as Banavasi.
18. BRAHMAGIRI in Chitaldurg district of Karnataka, is remarkable for its continuity of cultural heritage extending from Neolithic (stone-age culture) to megalithic (early historic culture-3rd century B.C. to Ist century B.C. with possible links with Mediter anean and Caucasian Megaliths) revealing ancestory worship and animism pointing to the practice of cist and pit burials. It is the site of one of the two minor rock edicts of Askoka. These edicts suggest the provability of Ashoka entering the Sangha as a full monk after two and a half years of his conversion to Buddhism.
19. BURZAHOM in Kashmir Valley near Srinagar, is associated with megalithic settlements (dating 2400 B.C.) where the people lived on a plateau in pits using tools and weapons of stone (axe) and bones. (The only other site which has yielded considerable bone implements is Chirand, 40 km. West of Patna on the northern bank of the Ganges and using coarse grey pottery. The information that we gather from the two places, recently discovered, throws light on the proto-histroy of India).
20. BAMIYAN an important Buddhist and Gandhara Art center in Afghanistan in the early Christian centuries, has tall rock-cut Buddha statues. The ancient trade route linking north western India with China passed through it. It was the capital of the Hunas in the 5th and the 6th centuries A.D.
21. BELUR with a group of Hoysala monuments including the famous Chennakesava temple (built around 1117 A.D.) represents an art which applies to stone the technique of the ivory worker or the goldsmith.