Organizing (Managerial Function)
Organization is considered to be a strong base to establish any firm. Many scholars said that management function can smoothly run through effective organizing. In general term, Organising is explained as the way in which the work of a group of people is arranged and distributed among group members. The function of organising comprises of the determination of the activities to be performed, creation of departments sections and positions to perform those activities, and establishing relationships among the various parts of an organisation. The main intent of organizing is to build a framework for the performance of the activities of an organisation in a methodical manner. Sometimes organizing and organization are understood in same way but both are different. Organising is a function of management, while organisation refers to a group of persons who have combined to achieve some common objectives. The process of organising is basically to recognize and grouping of activities to be performed, defining and delegating authority, casting responsibility and establishing relationships to allow people to work jointly and successfully in order to accomplish organizational goals.
Good organizing functions can lead to the continuity and triumph of organization. When organizing function is not performed well, it can result in poor performance even though experts are involved in company's operations. The term organization denotes dissimilar things to different people. Basically, Organizing is the prime function of management that engages in developing an organizational structure and assigning human resources to ensure the accomplishment of objectives. The structure of the organization is the framework within which effort is synchronized. Organizing also involves the devising individual jobs within the organization. Managers take decisions about the duties and responsibilities of individual jobs, as well as the manner in which the duties should be performed.
Theoretical framework: Organizing is the function of management which go after planning. It is a function in which the harmonization and grouping of human, physical and financial resources takes place. Organizational function is important to accomplish various tasks. When analysing theoretical studies, many theorists gave their views on organizing function of management. Chester Barnard defined that "Organizing is a function by which the concern is able to define the role positions, the job related and the coordination between authority and responsibility. Hence, a manager always has to organize in order to get results. Another theorist, Louise A Allen stated that "Organization involves identification and grouping of activities to be performed and dividing them among the individuals and creating authority and responsibility relationship among them for the accomplishment of organizational objectives". Organizing being process, consists of departmentalization, linking of departments, defining authority and responsibility and prescribing authority relationships. The organization structure is the result of this process. Other group of researchers emphasized that organizing involves designing, structuring, and managing the work components to attain organizational goal. It is the process of determining what type of work is to be done, who is to do, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. Major problem to realize goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Organizations are groups of people, with ideas and resources, working toward universal goals. The principle of the organizing function is to exploit the organization's resources in order to attain organizational goals. Bateman illustrated that manager must identify their levels, and then they can systematize the most important resources of the company, their employees (2002). This process can be accomplished by management team put personnel in different division department, and then conduct the training program for their employees, putting the group together into a productive team. Management should organize all the resources in order to implement action it made in the planning process. Management will decide the organizational structure through the process of getting organized. Then establish and maintain relationships, also allocate necessary resources (Burchielli and Bartram 2009). To decide the organization structure, managers should look at the different division or apartment, the corporation of staff; discover the appropriate way to deal with the tasks within the company. Management must divide the task that needs to be done, and assign responsibilities (Dauten et al.1958).
Major steps in organizing: There are many steps in organizing function of management.
- Consideration of objectives:
The first step in organizing is to understand basic objectives of the company. Objectives determine resources and the various activities which should be done and the type of organization which needs to be built for this purpose. Objectives also serve as guidelines for the management and workforce. They bring about harmony of direction in the organization.
- Identification and grouping of activities:
Another step is Identification and grouping of activities. If group members are to pool their efforts successfully, there must be proper division of the major activities. Each job should be accurately classified and grouped. This will facilitate the people to know what is expected out of them as members of the group and will help in avoiding extra efforts to perform the task.
- Assignment of duties:
After grouping the activities into various jobs, management team should be allotted to the individuals for ensuring assurance of work performance. Each individual should be given a particular task to do according to his ability and made responsible for that.
- Delegation of authority:
It is important to delegate the authority to the subordinates to show their output.
To summarize, organizing, as the stage of management process, solves the problem of an internal organizational structure of enterprise, managerial authority and responsibility division, as well as of selecting people and ways of performing business activities. The gist of many theorists is that organizing creates and maintains reasonable relationships between human, material, financial, and information resources by indicating which resources are to be used for specified activities and when, where, and how they will be used. The organizing process results in an organizational structure with precisely defined authorities and responsibilities.