Relation of Sociology with other social sciences
It is necessary to understand other social sciences to study society and the others should also study sociology. To understand social life in a particular aspect one must know society. Therefore sociology and other social sciences are interdependent.
1.Sociology & Anthropology:
Anthropology – derived from 2 words Anthropos & logos – 1st means man and 2nd means science of study. Anthro is the study of development of the human race. Sociology is study of present society and Anthro is of past man. Anthro is divided into 3 parts (1) physical (2) prehistorical or cultural (3) social. 1 – deals with the bodily characteristics of early man. 2 – It studies about the cultural remains of the primitive people, the origin and development culture and also the culture of the living primitive people. 3 – What types of social institutions were there in primitive society and their development.
Anthro helps sociology to study past material so sociology is dependent on Anthro because the knowledge of the old enables us to study the present day situations better. Anthro too depends on sociology Malinonisky Morgan studied about primitive commission based on private property of our modern times.
Anthro studies about the primitive society of man and culture of old. It studies of society which small and static but – sociology studies about man and society of the present which has a vast area and its dynamic (studies the dynamic changing society). They are all anthropologists. Kroeber says "Anthro and Sociology are twin sisters". Hoebel "Sociology and Social anthro are in line, broadest senses one and the same". Even Pritchard "Sociology is a branch of social Anthro". Every social science must be related to society or else they would not be social sciences and now since social studies society therefore every social science must be related to society. "The Sociological attitude has tended towards practical and present. The anthropological towards pure understanding and the past" – Kluckhonh.
2.Society & Psychology:
Psychology studies the mental process of behavior i.e. the effect of the individual mind on the behavior of group of man and vise versal.
Society is related to psychology because what it studies is a important part of society & social studies society.
Psychology depends on society and social studies. Society and psychology has to get the knowledge of society. Society is general science and psychology is a specific science. According to Megyver "Society gives special aid to psychology and psychology gives special aid to psychology relationship of society and psychology is shown by social psychology". Lapiere and Fransworth – "Social psychology is to society and psychology as bio-chemistry is to Biology & Chemistry".
Karl Pearson 'There is no distinction between society and social psychology. They are two sides of the same coin". According to Ward "There are some topics which are subject matters of both society and psychology such as socialization, Leadership psychology – mental process and society – social process.
1.Society & Economics:
Economics is the science of wealth. Marshall says "It is the society of economic activity, mans action in ordinary business of life. how he gets income and spends it". It studies the material welfare of human being in relation to society.
Economic progress and society progress, in any society goes hand in hand. Society problems such as illiteracy or superstition. Thus economy is dependent on society and thus economic is dependent on society. This is vise versa too. According to Thomas "Economic is the comprehensive science of sociology".
Economic is related to economic activities thus specific whereas society is the study of social progress. Production, consumption and distribution comes in economics. But all these happen in relation to society i.e. social process but social studies these social procedures.
Society & Politics: (The above notes are under this) Political science is the study of state – origin, function, importance, govt. contribution, rules & regulations, political parties, institutions, social group – sovereignty.
State is a part of society and society makes a general study of society. In a democracy we have by the people, of the people and for the people. i.e. of, for & by society. So is the welfare state which looks to the welfare of the society. Aristocracy with Queen and King. The king is a politician in a way. He rules for the good of the people and makes laws in view of doing good to his people. If he happens to do things contrary to the welfare of his people then he is criticized by his people i.e. society.
Society is dependent of politics. The Second World War brought about drastic changes in the society. It had a political origin but it had its effects on society political problems and events are related to society. Therefore since society is dependent in politics therefore society is dependent on political science.
Society is a science of society and it studies both organized as well as unorganized community whereas political science is the science of politics and it studies only the organized community. Political science only studies political institutions whereas social studies all social institutions. Therefore political science is specialized and society is generalized.
Society and Geography:
Geography studies the environment and atmosphere conditions etc. How this geography conditions environments etc. are important for society. How the people of different geography conditions differ. How their culture differentiates from people of the place with another as regards modes, cultures and standards of living. The way the adjust to the environment. Say Antarctica – the geography conditions does not suit man. Thus society is related to geography. For society there must be suitable geography conditions which for example is the desert. Man or society has captured geography conditions in quite a few cases. The example that the 1st settlements took place near river banks clearly shows the physical features of the earth i.e. the geographical conditions affect the people. The culture of man develops according to his surroundings.
Society too affects the environment and moulds and uses these conditions. By capturing the geography conditions society is bringing about a great change in his environment and since geography studies. This environment, naturally when it changes the theories of geography too changes thus both geography and society are interdependent.
Barnes & Becker: "Society is neither the hand made nor the mistress of other social sciences but their sister".
L.F. Ward – "Society is the combination of other special social sciences". He gives an example – Blue & Yellow = Green, likewise society studies the general characteristic of all other social sciences and emerges as a separate science.
H. Spencer: "As the organismic theory the different social sciences are related to each other as are the different organs of the body". Social Darwinism's theory – Any living being enter in the struggle for survival & those who are the strongest of the fittest survive till the last. So also is the case with society. Those who adjust to the different institutions of society stay for long (till the last). The accept things last while those we discard (things in society) dies away. Socialism differ too shows this relation of all social sciences with society evolutionary – how from small units it grew.
According to Simpson – "Social science is a unity, but is not fictitious unity, it's a dynamic unity of operating parts and these parts are indispensable to each and all others".