Change means differentiation in anything observation over sometime. If we feel that there's come alteration we call it changes. It this change is in contest to social structure, institution etc, i.e. social context then it is social change.
According Fictor "Change means variations from previous state or mode of existence".
Change is an universal phenomena i.e. it is a law of native. There's always a change in nature. Society is a part of nature & so society also changes & static society is unthinkable. Society is on the wheel of change, which may occur due to various factors (like demography, ideas etc. If there is any change in Technology etc there's change in society) out the change varies in speed & farm.
In some places the change is rapid whereas in other places it may be slow. These days due to industriation & urbanization the change is rapid as compared to earlier times. The form may be economic, political, social (instriation) religious (instriation), change in any part of society affects all the other parts of society. Eg. An individual is the fundamental unit of society & there's change in the life of the individual which is called evolutionary process of social change (birth to death). This is a slow process.
Definition of Social Change
Ginsberg (By social change I understand a change in the social structure).
Kingsley Doris "By social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization i.e. the structure & functions of society".
Merril & Elbridge "Social change means, that large no. of persons are engaging in activities that differ from those which they or their immediate fore-fathers engaged in some time before."
Gillin & Gillin "Social changes are variations from the accepted mode of life, whether due to alteration in geographical condition, in cultural equipment, composition of the population. Or ideologies & whether brought about by diffusion or inventions within the group."
Jones' "Social change is a term used to describe variations in or modification of any aspect of social process, social patterns, social interaction or social organization."
M.D.Jenson – Describes –Social change as "modification in ways of doing & thinking of people."
Characteristics of Social change
- Social change is universal or it is an essential law.
- Change with diff. in speed & form simple society … change was slower.
- Change is unpredictable in general Revol is a process of social change. What speed & in what form the change takes place is not easily predictable.
- Social change is change in community
- Social change generally changes in direction. There are 3 patterns of social change.
- linear failure change generally leads to progress (change for good) can't cycle –car – train –plain
- Fluctuating change – the change may be upward & downward. The demographic change is such also economic change,
- Cyclical change – the change is in a cycle. Fashion, sometimes also in economical aspect (Karl max gave this idea. He says earlier there was no private property & we may go back to it).
Factors of Social change
- Demographic factors – Population plays an important role in society it there is change in the composition of pop there is change in society by composition we mean the structure i.e. sex ratio. For balance in society the sex ratio should be 1:1 and if there is change in the ratio there is change in society if there are more females than the status & position goes down (because in Polygene more wives & the hubby now their status goes down). In the other case the females position rises. The bride –price increases (in the tribunal society).
Age group – childhood, adulthood, old age. If the population of children is most then increase of population will be slower. If adults more than there will be rapid change in society cause they are the most regulative. In case of old more there is conflict in society they don't wish for change.
Marital status in production of children. If girls are married young there will be over population & he health is also in danger. Status of women becomes lower. And if at too late a stage – a girl is married fertility is less. Changes in demography – Birth rate & Death rate. Higher birth rate creates a lot of problems. Malthus theme of population – Economics. Over population-poverty unemployment increases. Death – rate – man – power decreases.
Immigration & Emigration – 1 is coming into country, 2 – going out of the country. Causes cultural problems leads to over population. 2 – Brain – drain is the problem.
- Natural factors – now native affect society – National calamities, floods, epidemics affairs society in its social relationships (i) structure. People become selfish as during scarcities they are more bothered feeding themselves.
- Technological factors
- Mechanization & social change – machines bring about this gave women the chance to work gave rise to women's tib.
Unemployment & such problems arose these affected cottage industries.
- Urbanization – changed job opportunities.
Transport gave rise is social contacts. Communication gives rise to greater awareness & is beans of recreation too.
Atomic Energy & change
- Cultural Factors
Write about concept of cultural tag by w.f Ougbourn book – social change brings change. He says material & non – material change. Usually non-material can't cope up with material changed & gives rise to cultural lag.
Change in values ideas & custom's changes society (Habits).
In handbook of Sociology, he said if may so happen that material behind education, unization etc., too brings change in marriage system etc.
Marxian theory of social change i.e. Technological Deterministic theory. On interpretative theory – change according to him is inevitable & a continuous process. He has given more important to the economical factors. He says if there is change in economy the only tractor my (changes of demography etc affect the individuals) there is change in society – change n the production system i.e. change in technology because it is due to change in technology that these's change in production that's why his theme is called technological data. Two change in production system. Has two aspect productive forces & productive relations – this is due to change in technology productive apparatuses, labour & production experience & labour still ? productive faces. Productive relations ? Capitalists & labourers (master & slaves).