The word stratification means division when we say social stratification it means divisions in society. division in language, culture, wealth, property, birth, status, age & sex. This social stratification is found in society in some form or another in the world. This social stratification in simple society based one sex & age. In complex society it is based on capabilities, birth, wealth, property, inequality of prestige or difference in ranking system. Hierarchy system, status, position & power prestige is involved in ranking system of social stratification refers to the ranking system, status, position & power in society. Inequality exits.
Sorokin said that unstratific society is a myth. In our societies, social stratification is to caste & class.
Acc. to P.Kinsberg "Social Stratification linked is the division of society into permanent group or categories linked with each other by the relationship of superiority & sub-ordination."
Sorokin explained social stratification means the differentiation of the given population. Into hierarchally superposed class; it is manifested in existence of upper & lower social layers." He further says unstratified society with social equality of its members is a myth which has never been realized in the history of mankind." According. to Raymond necessary - Stratification is a horizontal division of society into higher or lower social units. Lundberg – describes about social stratification as a stratified society is marked by inequality, by difference as among people that are evaluated about them as been lower & higher. Kurt B.Mayor –"Social stratification is a system of differential which includes a hierarchy of social position whose occupants are treated as superior, equal or inferior to one another in socially imp. respects. Max Webter-"Social stratification is an organized manifestation of unequal power in society."
Basis on Forms of Social Stratification – Biological stratification on Biological basis – age, sex, birth, race.
- age – childhood, youth, adult & old (superior or experienced)
- Sex – male & female. In the Indian context males are considered to be superior.
- Birth – refers to the caste system. This is divided into sub-castes. There are above 3000 castes & sub-castes. The Brahmin gets the highest position.
- Race-white & black usually white are superior. Caucasian – white, monoxide – yellow & Negroid – block. Socio – Cultural Basis – Education, wealth, property, business, occupation.
- Education –literate, illiterate. In this too is divided into many stratus.