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3D bio-printing/ Additive manufacturing

Posted on : 17 Jan 2020

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  • Bio-printing is an additive manufacturing process where biomaterials such as cells and growth factors are combined to create tissue-like structures that imitate natural tissues.
  • Bio-ink is used to create these structures in a layer-by-layer manner.
  • Bio-ink: Bio-ink is a combination of living cells and a compatible base, like collagen, elastin, gelatin, hyaluronan, silk, alginate or nanocellulose.
  • But the process can essentially be summarized into three key steps:
  1. Pre bio-printing involves creating the digital model that the printer will produce. The technologies used are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
  2. Bio-printing is the actual printing process, where bio-ink is placed in a printer cartridge and deposition takes place based on the digital model.
  3. Post bio-printing is the mechanical and chemical stimulation of printed parts so as to create stable structures for the biological material.
  • Application:
  • Medicine and Bio-engineering: Advancements in the production of cartilage tissue for use in reconstruction and regeneration.
  • The process has potential to eradicate in future the need of organ donation and transplantation. Treatment for diseases can be tested using artificially affected tissues.
  • Bone tissue regeneration as well as prosthetics and dental applications.
  • Pharmaceutical testing and reduced need for animal trials.
  • Cosmetic surgery
  • Limitation:
    • The vasculature still has to be developed to allow lab skin to integrate with the human body’s blood vessels.
    • Stem cell engineering hasn’t yet evolved to grow all cells of an organ in a personalized way to avoid rejection by recipient’s immune.
    • Current not evolved to ensure that a lab organ works well with all other human organs.

Article Related Questions

  1. Recently, many developments have been made in the field of bio-printing. Which of the following is not a limitation of 3D bio-printing?
    1.The abundant and branched nature of the vasculature is difficult to reproduce
    2.Risk of immune rejection
    3.Accurately printing tissues on the micro-scale
    Choose the correct answer

  2. 1.1 only

    2.1 and 2 only

    3.3 only

    4.1, 2 and 3

    Right Ans : 3 only

  3. The 1857 Uprising was the culmination of the recurrent big and small local rebellions that occured in the preceding hundred years of British Rule. Elucidate (Answer in 150 words) - 2019 Mains

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