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Article 123 of the Constitution

Posted on : 14 Dec 2019

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  • Article 123 of the Constitution empowers the President to promulgate ordinances during the recess of Parliament. These ordinances have the same force and effect as an act of Parliament, but are in the nature of temporary laws.
  • The ordinance-making power is the most important legislative power of the President. It has been vested in him to deal with unforeseen or urgent matters. But, the exercises of this power is subject to the following four

Limitations:

  1. He can promulgate an ordinance only when both the Houses of Parliament are not in session or when either of the two Houses of Parliament is not in session. An ordinance can also be issued when only one House is in session because a law can be passed by both the Houses and not by one House alone. An ordinance made when both the Houses are in session is void. Thus, the power of the President to legislate by ordinance is not a parallel power of legislation.
  2. He can make an ordinance only when he is satisfied that the circumstances exist that render it necessary for him to take immediate action. In Cooper case11, (1970), the Supreme Court held that the President’s satisfaction can be questioned in a court on the ground of malafide. This means that the decision of the President to issue an ordinance can be questioned in a court on the ground that the President has prorogued one House or both Houses of Parliament deliberately with a view to promulgate an ordinance on a controversial subject, so as to bypass the parliamentary decision and thereby circumventing the authority of the Parliament. The 38th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1975 made the President’s satisfaction final and conclusive and beyond judicial review. But, this provision was deleted by the 44th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1978. Thus, the President’s satisfaction is justiciable on the ground of malafide.
  3. His ordinance-making power is coextensive as regards all matters except duration, with the law-making powers of the Parliament.

Article Related Questions

  1. Article 123 of the Constitution empowers the President to promulgate ordinances during the recess of Parliament, consider the following statements regarding it
    1.ordinance has the same force and effect as an act of Parliament
    2.Power of the President to legislate by ordinance is a parallel power of legislation
    3.Maximum life of an ordinance can be six months and six weeks.
    Choose the correct option from the following

  2. 1.1 and 2 only

    2.2 and 3 only

    3.1 and 3 only

    4.1, 2 and 3

    Right Ans : 1 and 3 only


  3. The 1857 Uprising was the culmination of the recurrent big and small local rebellions that occured in the preceding hundred years of British Rule. Elucidate (Answer in 150 words) - 2019 Mains


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