Bio fuels and Generations of Bio-fuels
Posted on : 13 Dec 2019Views: 137
- Jatropha: Jatropha curcas is multipurpose non edible oil yielding perennial shrub. This is a hardy and drought tolerant crop can be raised in marginal lands with lesser input.
- Sugarbeet: Sugar beet is a biennial sugar producing tuber crop, grown in temperate countries. Now tropical sugar beet varieties are gaining momentum in tropical and sub-tropical countries, as a promising alternative energy crop for the production of ethanol.
- Sorghum: Sorghum is the most important millet crop occupying largest area among the cereals next to rice. It is mainly grown for its grain and fodder. Alternative uses of sorghum include commercial utilization of grain in food industry and utilization of stalk for the production of value-added products like ethanol, syrup and jaggery and bio enriched bagasse as a fodder and as a base material for cogeneration.
- Pongamia: There is several non-edible oil yielding trees that can be grown to produce bio fuel. Karanja is one of the most suitable trees. It is widely grown in various parts of the country.
Biofuels are generally classified into four categories. They are
- First generation bio fuels - First-generation bio fuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology. Common first-generation bio fuels include Bio alcohols, Biodiesel, Vegetable oil, Bio ethers, Biogas.
- Second generation bio fuels - These are produced from non-food crops, such as cellulosic bio fuels and waste biomass (stalks of wheat and corn, and wood). Examples include advanced bio fuels like bio hydrogen, bio methanol.
- Third generation bio fuels - These are produced from micro-organisms like algae.
- Fourth Generation Bio fuels - Four Generation Bio-fuels are aimed at not only producing sustainable energy but also a way of capturing and storing co2. Biomass materials, which have absorbed co2 while growing, are converted into fuel using the same processes as second generation bio fuels. This process differs from second and third generation production as at all stages of production the carbon dioxide is captured using processes such as oxy-fuel combustion. This system not only captures and stores carbon dioxide from the atmosphere but it also reduces co2 emissions by replacing fossil fuels.
Article Related Questions
First generation bio-fuels can be made from which of the following materials?
Which of the following statement is/are correct?
The 1857 Uprising was the culmination of the recurrent big and small local rebellions that occured in the preceding hundred years of British Rule. Elucidate (Answer in 150 words) - 2019 Mains
1.1, 2 and 3 only
2.2, 3 and 4 only
3.1, 3 and 4 only
4.1, 2 and 4 only
Right Ans : 2, 3 and 4 only