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Factors Determining the Climate of India

Posted on : 08 Feb 2020

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  • Latitude: The Tropic of Cancer passes through the central part of India in the east-west direction. Thus, the northern part of India lies in the sub-tropical and temperate zone and the part lying south of the Tropic of Cancer falls in the tropical zone. The area north of the Tropic of Cancer being away from the equator, experiences extreme climate with high daily and annual range of temperature.
  • The Himalayan Mountains: The towering mountain provides an invincible shield to protect the subcontinent from the cold northern winds. These cold and chilly winds originate near the Arctic circle and blow across central and eastern Asia. The Himalayas also trap the monsoon winds, forcing them to shed their moisture within the subcontinent.
  • Distribution of Land and Water: India is surrounded by the Indian Ocean on three sides in the south and girdled by a high and continuous mountain-wall in the north. As compared to the landmass, water heats up or cools down slowly. This differential heating of land and sea creates different air pressure zones in different seasons in and around the Indian subcontinent. The difference in air pressure causes a reversal in the direction of monsoon winds.
  • Distance from the Sea: With a long coastline, large coastal areas have an equable climate. Areas in the interior of India are far away from the moderating influence of the sea. Such areas have extremes of climate. People of Mumbai and the Konkan coast have hardly any idea of extremes of temperature and the seasonal rhythm of weather. On the other hand, the seasonal contrasts in weather at places in the interior of the country such as Delhi, Kanpur, and Amritsar affect the entire sphere of life.
  • Altitude: Temperature decreases with height. Due to thin air, places in the mountains are cooler than places on the plains. For example, Agra and Darjiling are located on the same latitude, but the temperature of January in Agra is 16°C whereas it is only 4°C in Darjiling.
  • Relief: The physiography or relief of India also affects the temperature, air pressure, direction and speed of the wind and the amount and distribution of rainfall. The windward sides of the Western Ghats and Assam receive high rainfall during June-September whereas the southern plateau remains dry due to its leeward situation along the Western Ghats.

Article Related Questions

  1. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding the factors determining the climate of India?

  2. 1.The subtropical region of India being far from the equator, experiences extreme climate.

    2.Differential heating of land and sea creates different air pressure zones that cause a reversal in the direction of monsoon winds.

    3.The southern plateau remains dry due to its windward situation along the Eastern Ghats.

    4.Due to thin air, places in the mountains are cooler than places on the plains.

    Right Ans : The southern plateau remains dry due to its windward situation along the Eastern Ghats.

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