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Geography of Australia

Posted on : 22 Jan 2020

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  • Australia is the smallest continent and one of the largest countries on Earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • Australia’s capital is Canberra, located in the southeast between the larger and more important economic and cultural centres of Sydney and Melbourne.
  • Australia has been called “the Oldest Continent,” “the Last of Lands,” and “the Last Frontier.”
  • Most of the rocks providing the foundation of Australian landforms were formed during Precambrian and Paleozoic time (some 4.6 billion to 252 million years ago)—but the ages of the cores of all the continents are approximately the same.
  • Australia is the last of lands only in the sense that it was the last continent, apart from Antarctica, to be explored by Europeans.
  • Its unique flora and fauna include hundreds of kinds of eucalyptus trees and the only egg-laying mammals on Earth, the platypus and echidna.
  • Other plants and animals associated with Australia are various acacias (Acacia pycnantha [golden wattle] is the national flower) and dingoes, kangaroos, koalas, and kookaburras. The Great Barrier Reef, off the east coast of Queensland, is the greatest mass of coral in the world and one of the world’s foremost tourist attractions.
  • Proterozoic Australia was part of the supercontinent of Gondwanaland, comprising India and the other southern continents, from about 750 million years ago
  • The largest area of oldest rocks is the Western Shield, comprising the western half of the continent, which has been eroded to a low relief. The youngest rocks are found in the growing fold belt of the Banda arcs and in New Guinea at the boundary between the Indian-Australian plate and the Eurasian and Pacific plates.
  • Its highest peak, Mount Kosciuszko, rises to only 7,310 feet (2,228 metres).

Article Related Questions

  1. Which of the following is/are part of the Western Plateau region of Australia?
    1.Darling Range
    2.Great Australian Basin
    3.Great Barrier Reef
    4.MacDonnell Ranges
    Select the correct option from the codes given below:

  2. 1.1, 2 and 3 only

    2.1, 2 and 4 only

    3.1, 3 and 4 only

    4.2, 3 and 4 only

    Right Ans : 1, 2 and 4 only

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