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Geography of Iran

Posted on : 22 Jan 2020

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  • Iran is a mountainous, arid, and ethnically diverse country of southwestern Asia.
  • The capital is Tehrān, a sprawling, jumbled metropolis at the southern foot of the Elburz Mountains.
  • Iran is bounded to the north by Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkmenistan, and the Caspian Sea, to the east by Pakistan and Afghanistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.
  • Iran also controls about a dozen islands in the Persian Gulf. About one-third of its 4,770-mile (7,680-km) boundary is seacoast.
  • Most of the country is above 1,500 feet (460 metres), with one-sixth of it over 6,500 feet (1,980 metres).
  • The Zagros (Zāgros) Mountains stretch in a northwest-southeast direction, from Iran’s borders with Turkey and Iraq in the northwest to the Strait of Hormuz in the southeast.
  • Farther to the south the range broadens into a band of parallel ridges 125 miles (200 km) wide that lies between the plains of Mesopotamia and the Great Central Plateau of Iran.
  • The Elburz (Alborz) Mountains run along the south shore of the Caspian Sea to meet the border ranges of the Khorāsān region to the east.
  • The tallest peak in the chain is the snow-clad Mount Damāvand (Demavend), which is also Iran’s highest point.
  • Mount Taftān, a massive volcanic cone reaching 13,261 feet (4,042 metres) in southeastern Iran, emits gas and mud at sporadic intervals.
  • The Sahand-Bazman Belt, formed by Eocene volcanism, extends some 1,200 miles (1,900 km) from the border with Azerbaijan in the northwest to Baluchistan in the southeast and includes volcanic peaks such as Mount Sahand, Mount Karkas in Eṣfahān province, Mount Lalahezar in Kermān province, and Bazman in Sīstān va Balūchestān province.
  • A third volcanic region, which is 250 miles (400 km) long and 40 miles (65 km) wide, runs between Lake Urmia (Orūmiyyeh) and the city of Qazvīn.
  • Earthquake activity is frequent and violent throughout the country.
  • The arid interior plateau, which extends into Central Asia, is bounded on the west by the Zagros Mountains, on the north by the Elburz Mountains and the Kopet-Dag (Koppeh Dāgh) Range, and on the south by the Bashagard Range, which extends east from the Strait of Hormuz into the Baluchistan region of Iran.
  • The plateau is cut by several smaller mountain ranges. In the flatlands lie the plateau’s most-remarkable features, the Kavīr and Lūt deserts, also called the Dasht-e Kavīr and Kavīr-e Lūt.
  • The Sefīd (Safid) River originates in the Elburz Mountains in the north and runs as a mountain stream for most of its length but flows rapidly into the Gīlān plain and then to the Caspian Sea.
  • The Dez Dam in Dezfūl is one of the largest in the Middle East. The Sefīd River Dam, completed in the early 1960s at Manjīl, generates hydroelectric power and provides water for irrigation.
  • The Zāyandeh River, the lifeline of Eṣfahān province, also originates in the Zagros Mountains, flowing southeastward to Gāv Khūnī Marsh (Gāvkhāneh Lake).
  • The largest inland body of water, Lake Urmia, in northwestern Iran, covers an area that varies from about 2,000 to 2,300 square miles (5,200 to 6,000 square km). Other lakes are principally seasonal, and all have a high salt content.

Article Related Questions

  1. Consider the following statements regarding the geography of Iran
    1.It is located in south-western Asia
    2.Earthquake activity is frequent and violent throughout the country.
    3.Kuwait, Turkmenistan, Pakistan touches the boundary of Iran.
    Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  2. 1.1 and 2 only

    2.2 only

    3.3 only

    4.1, 2 and 3

    Right Ans : 1 and 2 only

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