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Isreal, a country on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, with the average annual rainfall near 30 cm, has no scarcity of water. India, a country bounded by the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and large number of river basins, with the average annual rainfall near 114 cm, face drought in some region every year. This is only because of the difference of water saving techniques. Hence we need water saving techniques so that we free from fear of scarcity.

The Earth, water planet, three-fourth of which surface covered with water, but only a small portion, 2.8% is available in the form of fresh water. By lack of awareness for water conservation a finite resource becoming scarce day by day. The existing scenario shows that there is an urgent need for propagating water harvesting and transforming it into a mass movement for this precious natural asset.

Water harvesting can be done at two levels, say macro-level and micro-level. In macro-level conservation of water can be done by traditional and modern conservation techniques. In micro-level conservation of water can be done by judicious utilization of water in daily routine work.

Traditional Method: In ancient and mediaeval India there existed ecologically safe, marvellous water conservation techniques. The traditional system of water harvesting includes the bawari, talab, tanka, jhalra, etc. These man-made reservoirs received water during rain seasons and used in future. The water into reservoirs diverted from canals that was built on the hilly outskirts of the city. Today, many of these existed in poor condition such as Satyanarayanji ki bawari in Jodhpur, Agrasen ki bawari in Delhi. These traditional harvesting methods would play an effective role in present scenario economically and ecologically.

Modern Techniques: The modern technique of water harvesting includes the rainwater harvesting, water grid project, drip irrigation percolation tanks, injection wells and so on.

Drip Irrigation: In drip irrigation, developed by Isreal, water is allowed to drip slowly, drop by drop to the root zone of plants. In this method narrow tubes networked across the plants which used to deliver water. Nozzle fitted with pipes at various places, from where water droplets make to irrigate. This is a very effective method of irrigation of which 35-75% water can be saved.

Sprinkle Irrigation: In sprinkle irrigation water is sprinkled in the air in the form of droplets as artificial rain very similar to natural rain. In this method water circulated through a system of pipes from which it sprayed into the air through sprinklers. The sprinklers breaks water into little drops which fall onto the ground. The water spread evenly and not coagulated anywhere and saved 30-70% water.

Water Grid: India, boon by large number rivers, faces drought as well as flood in some region of country every year. The method of water grid is a major project in which rivers are to be connected by a network of reservoirs and canals. So that water transformed from flood zone to drought zone and a reduction in persistent of flood in some parts and water shortage in other parts of the country. By water grid project country would able to use more than 22 lack millions cubic meter water effectively for irrigation, hydro-power and other daily functions.

Rain Water Harvesting: An effective technique of saving water in which rooftop rain water is guided and collected by a path using pipes that falls on rooftops. Water stored in tanks and filtered by sand-bricks before use. The accumulated water may be taken for immediate use and excess water can be flowed through a pipe to wells or recharge pits, which is a very effective method of recharging ground water to maintain water level. Tamilnadu is the only state which has made legal provisions for rain water harvesting and which is compulsory in all across the state. This method and provisions needed all across the country in the regard of present scenario of water scarcity.

At micro-level water can be saved by proper and effective utilization in daily routine work. Such as: By washing of cars by bucket and mug not by hosepipe, By changing leaking taps or pipelines, By turn off water after wetting toothbrush and during saving, By using a broom to clean driveways and sideways instead of a hose, avoiding use of running water in the kitchen, and so many more where water can be saved with small steps.

Water conservation is a key element of any strategy to bring an end to India's perennial swings between drought and flood. Water conservation and management is achieved only by regeneration, effective, sensible, judicious utilization and co-operation of society.

- Deep Chandra Chaurasiya

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