Physics Syllabus for Main Examination
PAPER - I
2. Waves and Optics:
- Mechanics of Particles:
Laws of motion; conservation of energy and
momentum, applications to rotating frames,
cent r ipetal and Cor iol is accelerat ions;
Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler's laws;
Fields and potentials; Gravitational field
and potential due to spherical bodies,
Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy; Two-body problem; Reduced mass; Rutherford scattering; Centre of mass an laboratory reference frames.
- Mechanics of Rigid Bodies:
System of particles; Centre of mass, angular momentum, equations of motion; Conservation theorems for energy, momentum
and angular momentum; Elastic and inelastic collisions; Rigid body; Degrees of
freedom, Euler's theorem, angular velocity, angular momentum, moments of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes, equation of motion for rotation;
Molecular rotations (as rigid bodies); Di
and tri-atomic molecules; Precessional
motion; top, gyroscope.
- Mechanics of Continuous Media:
Elasticity, Hooke's law and elastic constants of isotropic solids and their inter-relation; Streamline (Laminar) flow, viscosity, Poiseuille's equation, Bernoulli's equation, Stokes' law and applications.
- Special Relativity:
Michelson-Morley experiment and its implications; Lorentz transformations-length
contraction, time dilation, addition of relativistic velocities, aberration and Doppler
effect, mass-energy relation, simple applications to a decay process; Four dimensional momentum vector; Covariance of
equations of physics.
3. Electricity and Magnetism:
Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance;
Beats; Stationary waves in a string; Pulses
and wave packets; Phase and group velocities; Reflection and Refraction from
- Geometrical Optics:
Laws of reflection and refraction from
Fermat's principle ; Matrix method in
paraxial optics-thin lens formula, nodal
planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic and spherical aberrations.
Interference of light-Young's experiment,
Newton's rings, interference by thin films,
Michelson interferometer; Multiple beam
interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer.
Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double
slit, diffraction grating, resolving power; Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy
pattern; Fresnel diffraction: half-period
zones and zone plates, circular aperture.
- Polarization and Modern Optics:
Production and detection of linearly and
circularly polarized light; Double refraction,
quarter wave plate; Optical activity; Principles of fibre optics, attenuation; Pulse
dispersion in step index and parabolic index f ibres; Mater ial dispersion, single
mode fibres; Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients; Ruby and He-Ne lasers; Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence; Focusing of laser beams;
Three-level scheme for laser operation;
Holography and simple applications.
4.Thermal and Statistical Physics:
- Electrostatics and Magnetostatics:
Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications; Energy of a
system of charges, multipole expansion of
scalar potential; Method of images and its
applications; Potential and field due to a
dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an
external field; Dielectrics, polarization; Solutions to boundary-value problems-conducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform
electric field; Magnetic shell, uniformly
magnetized sphere; Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.
- Current Electricity:
Kirchhoff's laws and their applications;
Biot-Savart law, Ampere's law, Faraday's
law, Lenz' law; Self-and mutual-inductances; Mean and r m s values in AC circuits; DC and AC circuits with R, L and C
components; Series and parallel resonances; Quality factor; Principle of transformer.
- Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation:
Displacement current and Maxwell's equations; Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting
theorem; Vector and scalar potentials; Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of
Maxwell's equations; Wave equations in
isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics;
Fresnel's relations; Total internal reflection;
Normal and anomalous dispersion;
Rayleigh scattering; Blackbody radiation
and Planck's radiation law, Stefan -
Boltzmann law, Wien's displacement law
and Rayleigh-Jeans' law.
Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and
irreversible processes, entropy; Isothermal,
adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and
entropy changes; Otto and Diesel engines,
Gibbs' phase rule and chemical potential;
van der Waals equation of state of a real
gas, critical constants; Maxwell-Boltzman
distribution of molecular velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition and virial
theorems; Dulong-Pet i t , Einstein, and
Debye's theories of specific heat of solids;
Maxwell relations and applications ;
Clausius- Clapeyron equation; Adiabatic
demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and
liquefaction of gases.
- Statistical Physics:
Macro and micro states, statistical distributions, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein
and Fermi-Dirac distributions, applications
to specific heat of gases and blackbody
radiation; Concept of negative temperatures.
PAPER - II
1. Quantum Mechanics:
Wave-particle dualitiy; Schroedinger equation and expectation values; Uncertainty
principle; Solutions of the one-dimensional
Schroedinger equation for a free particle
(Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box,
particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator; Reflection and transmission by a
step potential and by a rectangular barrier;
Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals; Angular momentum; Hydrogen atom;
Spin half particles, properties of Pauli spin
2. Atomic and Molecular Physics:
Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin,
fine structure of hydrogen atom; L-S coupling, J-J coupling; Spectroscopic notation
of atomic states; Zeeman effect; FrankCondon principle and applications; Elementary theory of rotational, vibratonal
and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules; Raman effect and molecular structure; Laser Raman spectroscopy; Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular
hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in
astronomy; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Elementary theory and applications
of NMR and EPR; Elementary ideas about
Lamb shift and its significance.
3. Nuclear and Particle Physics:
Basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic
moment; Semi-empirical mass formula and
appl icat ions, mass parabolas; Ground
state of deuteron, magnetic moment and
non-central forces; Meson theory of nuclear
forces; Salient features of nuclear forces;Shell model of the nucleus - successes and
limitations; Violation of parity in beta decay; Gamma decay and internal conversion; Elementary ideas about Mossbauer
spectroscopy; Q-value of nuclear reactions;
Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars; Nuclear reactors.
Classification of elementary particles and
their interactions ; Conservation laws ;
Quark structure of hadrons; Field quanta
of electroweak and strong interactions; Elementary ideas about unification of forces;
Physics of neutrinos.
4. Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics:
Crystalline and amorphous structure of
matter; Different crystal systems, space
groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, scanning and
transmission electron microscopies; Band
theory of solids - conductors, insulators and
semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and ferromagnetism; Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications;
Elementary ideas about high temperature
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; pn-p and n-p-n transistors; Amplifiers and
osci l lators; Op-amps; FET, JFET and
MOSFET; Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De Morgan's laws, logic gates and
truth tables; Simple logic circuits; Thermistors, solar cells; Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.