Functions & Merits of caste System
- It determines the status of an individual in the society, i.e. According to the Ca. S. Ones prestige, status role etc. is fixed acc. to his birth. A Brahmin's son will inherit the status, position of his father & status. J.S. Huttou unless a person violates the caste rule he remains in the C.S. Neither poverty no wealth can change ones status in the caste society neither success or disaster.
- It fixes the occupation or hereditary occupation is an important characteristic of C.S. One acquires the occupation. Of his ancestors & he has not to wonder about in search of it.
- Division of labour – In each caste or sub-caste has fixed roles, function in society i.e. it is based on Karma theory. Everyone thinks & beliefs that god has fixed his occupation which is the scout of his karma in earlier birth & he lives to do his occupation well so that he may have a good occupation in his next birth.
- Social security as well psychic security `we feeling' is strong in all castes & sub-castes. Whenever one of the caste member is ill or orphaned or has some other problem they whole caste members are compelled to help them. Castizm /Caste patriotism induces them to help their own castes.
- Unity in diversity – society is divided different stratas. Demerits (i) C.S. is undemocratic & therefore contradictory to the Indian democratizes. Peoples sales, status etc are fixed in C.S. but not in a democracy. (ii) Social Disparity – C.S. brings a social disparity in society. It minders social life or economic life. Due to fixed occupation person with I.Q in other occupation can't go into it & this hinders optimum productivity. (iii) Barrier to National Unity – In this all acc. equal whereas in C.S. there is no equality. It gives support to casterism which is limited to their own caste. Ex –votes are given to the person of one's own caste. Every man wants the people of his caste to go ahead & this creates problems (iv) Untouchability – lower than sudras are untouchable & unseable & they are exploited by the higher caste. There are certain privileges & disabilities in caste system. The Brahmin's get more privilege. Brahminsm there- C.S. came into being due to Brahmin supremacy.
Changes in C.S. There are many changes in med. India. There is no restriction on occupation in the C.S. due to industrialization & urbanization. Now restriction on food concept has changes because now they buy from the market (all castes). Inter-caste marriage too is taking place. Under the special marriage act of 1154 inter-caste marriage is allowed. Their change in the caste endogamy & exogamy. Untouchability offence act (1955) has been abolished i.e. changes in the civil & religious disability of the C.S.
Factors for change
- Industrialisation & urbanization have brought a tremendous change in the rigid characin of the C.S.
- The influence of our education – the concept of equality.
- Legislative measures, govt. policies & effort, special marriage act 1954 untouchability offence act 1955.
- Social reforms – Brahma Samaj, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Gandhi
- Religious movement.- Christian missionaries
Future of C.S.
It is still prevalent although in a subdued manner mainly due to urban & Indus. On the name of caste educational institutions.